Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Countershading

  • Hannah M. RowlandEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_684-1

Synonyms

Definition

Classically explained as an adaptation for camouflage, countershading describes the color pattern common among animals and is characterized by darker pigmentation on the side of the body that is most strongly illuminated.

Introduction

Countershading is a color pattern that is observed in a diversity of taxa, across contrasting environments (Rowland 2009), and across ecological time (Smithwick et al. 2017). There are a number of reasons that countershading might evolve, including thermoregulation, protection against UV radiation, and defense against abrasion (Rowland 2009). The most researched hypothesis for the existence of countershading is that it enhances visual camouflage.

The History of Countershading

The English naturalist Edward Bagnall Poulton and American artist Abbott Thayer independently proposed that the function of countershading is to enhance camouflage (Rowland 2009)....

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References

  1. Allen, W. L., Baddeley, R., Cuthill, I. C., & Scott-Samuel, N. E. (2012). A quantitative test of the predicted relationship between countershading and lighting environment. The American Naturalist, 180, 762–776.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Behrens, R. R. (1988). The theories of Abbot H. Thayer: Father of camouflage. Leonardo, 21, 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cuthill, I. C., Sanghera, N. S., Penacchio, O., Lovell, P. G., Ruxton, G. D., & Harris, J. M. (2016). Optimizing countershading camouflage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(46), 13093–13097.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1611589113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  7. Penacchio, O., Harris, J. M., & Lovell, P. G. (2017). Establishing the behavioural limits for countershaded camouflage. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 13672.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13914-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Rowland, H. M. (2009). From Abbott Thayer to the present day: What have we learned about the function of countershading? Philosophical Transactions – Royal Society of London, B, 364, 519–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Smithwick, F. M., Nicholls, R., Cuthill, I. C., & Vinther, J. (2017). Countershading and stripes in the Theropod Dinosaur Sinosauropteryx reveal heterogeneous habitats in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota. Current Biology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.032
  10. Vinther, J., Nicholls, R., Lautenschlager, S., Pittman, M., Kaye, T. G., Rayfield, E., …, & Cuthill, I. C. (2016). 3D camouflage in an Ornithischian Dinosaur. Current Biology, 26(18), 2456–2462.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.06.065

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Chemical EcologyJenaGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Caroline Leuchtenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal Institute FarroupilhaPanambiBrasil