- 41 Downloads
In the neurosciences, animal models play a central role for experimentally investigating neurobehavioral (dys)functions and their underlying (patho)physiological mechanisms and processes. Almost always, when using animal models, one implicitly assumes that they simulate these mechanisms and processes in humans or a species other than the one investigated. These animal models thus focus on the homology/analogy of the behavior and underlying substrates with the final aim to learn about these behaviors and substrates in the species to be modeled. When developing a model or when selecting the most appropriate animal model for a research project, the most important selection criterion is its validity. Validity is the extent to which an animal model’s underlying substrates and mechanisms, measurements, and the conclusions drawn from these measurements are well-grounded and represent the real world accurately.
The basic classes of validity, i.e., internal and external validity...
- Burrows, E. L., McOmish, C. E., & Hannan, A. J. (2011). Gene–environment interactions and construct validity in preclinical models of psychiatric disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 35(6), 1376–1382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.12.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira, G. S., Veening-Griffioen, D. H., Boon, W. P. C., Moors, E. H. M., Gispen-de Wied, C. C., Schellekens, H., & van Meer, P. J. K. (2019). A standardised framework to identify optimal animal models for efficacy assessment in drug development. PLoS One, 14(6), e0218014, 17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gamzu, E. (1985). Animal behavioral models in the discovery of compounds to treat memory dysfunction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 444, 370–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1985.tb37602.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greek, R., & Rice, M. J. (2012). Animal models and conserved processes. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 9, 40, 33. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4682-9-40.
- Kas, M. J. H., Krishnan, V., Gould, T. D., Collier, D. A., Olivier, B., Lesch, K.-P., et al. (2011). Advances in multidisciplinary and cross-species approaches to examine the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21, 532–544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.12.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- LaPorte, J. L., Ren-Patterson, R. F., Murphy, D. L., & Kalueff, A. V. (2008). Refining psychiatric genetics: From ‘mouse psychiatry’ to understanding complex human disorders. Behavioural Pharmacology, 19, 377–384. https://doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0b013e32830dc09b.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Maximino, C., & van der Staay, F. J. (2019). Behavioral models in psychopathology: Epistemic and semantic considerations. Behavioral and Brain Functions 15, 1, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-019-0152-4.
- McKinney, W. T., Jr., & Bunney, W. E., Jr. (1969). Animal model of depression, I. Review of evidence: Implications for research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 21, 240–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-023725-1.50013-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McOmish, C. E., Burrows, E. L., & Hannan, A. J. (2014). Identifying novel interventional strategies for psychiatric disorders: Integrating genomics, ‘enviromics’ and gene–environment interactions in valid preclinical models. British Journal of Pharmacology, 171, 4719–4728. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.12783.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Stewart, A. M., Nguyen, M., Poudel, M. K., Warnick, J. E., Echevarria, D. J., Beaton, E. A., et al. (2015). The failure of anxiolytic therapies in early clinical trials: What needs to be done. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 24(4), 543–556. https://doi.org/10.1517/13543784.2015.1019063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- van der Staay, F. J., Arndt, S. S., & Nordquist, R. E. (2014). Developing mouse models of neurobehavioral disorders: When is a model a good model? In S. Pietropaolo, F. Sluyter, & W. E. Crusio (Eds.), Behavioral genetics of the mouse (pp. 3–17). https://doi.org/10.1007/CBO9781107360556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Willner, P. (1991). In P. Willner (Ed.), Behavioural models in psychopharmacology (pp. 3–18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Wright, C. D. (2002). Animal models of depression in neuropsychopharmacology qua Feyerabend philosophy of science. In S. P. Shodov (Ed.), Advances in psychologyy research (Vol. 13, pp. 129–148). New York: NovaScience Publishers.Google Scholar