Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Genetic Variation

  • Ritu
  • Bhagyalaxmi Mohapatra
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_20-1



Genetic variation (GV) is defined as the subtle genomic differences among individuals within or between populations that makes each or a group of organisms different from others.


Variations are found throughout the genome of an organism. However, these variations are not evenly distriibuted. Instead, some regions are “hot spots” of variability like CpG islands, and some other parts are stable enough that don’t show variation (Mugal and Ellegren 2011; Xia et al. 2012) at all among the individuals. Variation in the genetic material of an organism is depicted in its phenotype. Almost every trait of an individual is affected by genetic variation. Variations in the eye color and hair color, ear lobes, height etc. are due to the genetic differences between individuals.

Genetic Variation Drives Evolution

Genetic variation is an important evolutionary force as it provides the diversity within and between populations. Genetic...


Variable Number Of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) De Novo Variants Telomere Repeat Arrays Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Coding Region SNPs 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ritu
    • 1
  • Bhagyalaxmi Mohapatra
    • 1
  1. 1.Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Akash Gautam
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Neural and Cognitive Sciences, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia