Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Phenotype Matching

  • Jill M. Mateo
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1668-1

W. D. Hamilton’s concept of inclusive fitness is arguably the most significant refinement of Darwin’s theory of natural selection, explaining the evolution of costly behaviors that are directed toward close kin (Hamilton 1964). Hamilton also predicted the evolution of mechanisms to facilitate the accurate recognition of kin. Two common mechanisms of kin recognition are familiarity and phenotype matching. With familiarity (also known as “prior association”), animals learn the cues or labels of related individuals during early development (e.g., siblings) and later discriminate these familiar individuals from unfamiliar ones. Phenotype matching is an extension of familiarity. Here, animals learn their own phenotypes and/or those of their familiar kin and later compare or match the phenotypes of unknown animals to this learned recognition template. For phenotype matching to occur, there must be a correlation between phenotypic and genotypic similarity, so that individuals with traits...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Comparative Human DevelopmentThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Shannon Digweed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMacEwan UniversityEdmontonCanada