Advertisement

Obesity pp 349-371 | Cite as

Psychological Approaches in the Treatment of Obesity

  • Vanessa Snowdon-CarrEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

There are a wide range of psychological approaches for addressing issues of obesity from population level to individually responsive interventions; this chapter focuses on clinically based interventions. However, regardless of the type of intervention, a psychological perspective helps us to acknowledge and address the context in which a person experiences their weight, including bias and stigma which has considerable impact on physical and emotional wellbeing. Difficulties with weight do not occur in isolation but are a result of a complex interaction between physiological, psychological and social factors but too often this is over-simplified and results in a narrow focus on behaviour change. This chapter begins with consideration of the role that weight and food can have for individuals in order to understand why changing eating habits is challenging. It also highlights a range and combination of therapeutic models which have been found to be useful in working with obesity.

Keywords

Obesity Psychological stress Cognitive behavioral therapy Compassion focused therapy Mindfulness 

References

  1. Aaron DJ, Hughes TL. Association of childhood sexual abuse with obesity in a community sample of lesbians. Obesity. 2007;15(4):1023–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achtziger A, Gollwitzer PM, Sheeran P. Implementation intentions and shielding goal striving from unwanted thoughts and feelings. Personal Soc Psychol Bull. 2008;34:381–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adam TC, Epel ES. Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav. 2007;91(4):449–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adiraanse MA, De Ridder DTD, Evers C. Emotional eating: eating when emotional or emotional when eating? Psychol Health. 2011;26(1):23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agras WS, Telch CF, Linehan MM. Group dialectical behaviour therapy for binge eating disorder: a preliminary, uncontrolled trial. Behav Ther. 2000;31:569–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akabas S, Lederman S, Moore B. Textbook of obesity: biological, psychological and cultural influences. Chichester: Wiley; 2012.Google Scholar
  7. Almeida L, Savoy S, Boxer P. The role of weight stigmatisation in cumulative risk for binge eating. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67(3):278–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armitage CJ, Wright CL, Parfitt G, Pegington M, MLS D, Harvie MN. Self-efficacy for temptations is a better predictor of weight loss than motivation and global self-efficacy: evidence from two prospective studies among overweight/obese women at high risk of breast cancer. Patient Educ Couns. 2014;95(2):254–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Armstrong MJ, Mottershead TA, Ronksley PE, Sigal RJ, Campbell TS, Hemmelgarn BR. Motivational interviewing to improve weight loss in overweight and/or obese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2011;12(9):709–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashmore JA, Friedman KE, Reichmann SK, Mustante GJ. Weight-based stigmatisation, psychological distress and binge eating among obese treatment-seeking adults. Eat Behav. 2008;9(2):203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes RD, Ivezaj V. A systematic review of motivational interviewing for weight loss among adults in primary care. Obes Rev. 2015;16(4):304–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baumeister RF. Anxiety and deconstruction: on escaping the self. In: Olson JM, Zanna MP, editors. Self-inference processes: the Ontario symposium, vol. 6. Hillsdale: Erlbaum; 1990. p. 259–91.Google Scholar
  14. Benas JS, Gibb EE. Weight-related teasing, dysfunctional cognitions and symptoms of depression and eating disturbances. Cogn Ther Res. 2008;32(2):143–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bertakis KD, Azari R. The impact of obesity on primary care visits. Obes Res. 2005;13(9):1615–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blocher-McCabe E, La Via M, Marcus MD. Dialectical behaviour therapy for eating disorders. In: Thompson K, editor. Handbook of eating disorders and obesity. Hoboken: Wiley; 2004. p. 232–45.Google Scholar
  17. Brown I. Nurses attitudes towards patients who are obese: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2006;53(2):221–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown I, McClimens A. Ambivalence and obesity stigma in decisions about weight management: a qualitative study. Health. 2012;4(12A):1562–9.  https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2012.412A224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown I, Thompson J. Primary care nurses’ attitudes, beliefs and own body size in relation to obesity management. J Adv Nurs. 2007;60:35–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brownell K, Puhl R, Schwartz M, Rudd L. Weight bias: nature, consequences and remedies. New York: Guilford Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  21. Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Kendler KS. Medical and psychiatric morbidity in obese women with and without binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2002;32(1):72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burk-Braxton CL. Is shame a factor in overweight relapse? Unpublished dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. 1996.Google Scholar
  23. Caballero D, Finer N, Wurtman RJ. Plasma amino acids and insulin levels in obesity: response to carbohydrate intake and tryptophan supplements. Metabolism. 1988;37:672–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carels RA, Darby L, Cacciapaglia HM, Konrad K, Coit C, Harper J, Kaplar ME, Young K, Baylen CA, Versland A. Using motivational interviewing as a supplement to obesity treatment: a stepped-care approach. Health Psychol. 2007;26(3):369–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carr D, Friedman MA. Is obesity stigmatising? Body weight, perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in the United States. J Health Soc Behav. 2005;46:244–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cassin SE, Atwood M. Cognitive behavioural therapy for severe obesity. In: Psychiatric care in severe obesity. Springer. 2017; pp 245–56.Google Scholar
  27. Castelnuovo G, Manzoni GM, Villa V, Cesa GL, Pietrabissa G, Molinari E. The STRATOB study: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and brief strategic therapy with telecare in patients with obesity and binge-eating disorder referred to residential nutritional rehabilitation. Trials. 2011;12:114.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chwastiak LA, Rosenheck RA, Kazis LE. Association of psychiatric illness and obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking among a national sample of veterans. Psychosomatics. 2011;52(3):230–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coelho do Vale R, Pieters R, Zeelenberg M. The benefits of behaving badly on occasion: successful regulation by planned hedonic deviations. J Consum Psychol. 2016;26(1):17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen S. Relationships and health. Am Psychol. 2004;59:676–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen S, Gottlieb B, Underwood L. Social relationships and health. In: Cohen S, Underwood L, Gottlieb B, editors. Social support measurement and intervention: a guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Conrad M, Dierk J, Schlumberger P, Albohn C, Rauh E, Hinney A, Hebebrand J, Rief WA. Consultation with genetic information about obesity decreases self-blame about eating and leads to realistic weight loss goals in obese individuals. J Psychosom Res. 2009;66:287–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooper Z, Doll HA, Hawker DM, Byrne S, Bonner G, Eeley E, O’Connor ME, Fairburn CG. Testing a new cognitive behavioural treatment for obesity: a randomized controlled trial with three-year follow-up. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48(8):706–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Corrigan PW, Druss BG, Perlick DA. The impact of mental illness stigma on seeking and participating in mental health care. Psychol Sci Public Interest. 2014;15(2):37–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dallman MF. Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21(3):159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Daria ES, Latner JD. Stigmatizing attitudes differ across mental health disorders: a comparison of stigma across eating disorders, obesity, and major depressive disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013;201(4):281–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dawes AJ, et al. Mental health conditions among patients seeking and undergoing bariatric surgery: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016;315(2):150–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Deci EL, Ryan RM. The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychol Inq. 2000;11:227–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DiClemente CC, Prochaska JO. Toward a comprehensive, transtheoretical model of change: stages of change and addictive behaviors. In: Treating addictive behaviors, Applied clinical psychology, vol. 13. New York: Plenum Press; 1998. p. 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Epstein RM. Mindful practice. J Am Med Assoc. 1999;282(9):833–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Faith MS, Allison DB, Geliebter A. Emotional eating and obesity: theoretical considerations and practical recommendations. In: Dalton S, editor. Obesity and weight control: the health professional’s guide to understanding and treatment. Gaithersburg: Aspen; 1997. p. 439–65.Google Scholar
  42. Fandiño J, Moreira RO, Preissler C, Gaya CW, Papelbaum M, Coutinho WF, Appolinario JC. Impact of binge eating disorder in the psychopathological profile of obese women. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51(2):110–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fava M, Judge R, Hoog SL, et al. Fluoxetine versus sertraline and paroxetine in major depressive disorder: changes in weight with long-term treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61:863–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Foresight. Tackling obesities: future choices – project report. London: The Stationery Office; 2007. http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Obesity/obesity_final/Index.htmlGoogle Scholar
  45. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Makris AP, et al. Primary care physicians’ attitudes about obesity and its treatment. Obes Res. 2003;11:1168–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gabert DL, Majumdar SR, Sharma AM, Rueda-Clausen CF, Klarenbach SW, Birch DW, Karmali S, McCargar L, Fassbender K, Padwal RS. Prevalence and predictors of self-reported sexual abuse in severely obese patients in a population-based bariatric program. J Obes. 2013;2013:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gatineaum M, Dent M. Obesity and mental health. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory; 2011.Google Scholar
  48. Glisenti K, Strodl E. Cognitive behavior therapy and dialectical behavior therapy for treating obese emotional eaters. Clin Case Stud. 2012;11(2):71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Godfrey KM, Gallo LC, Afari N. Mindfulness-based interventions for binge eating: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Behav Med. 2015;38(2):348–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goldschmidt AB, Crosby RD, Engel SG, Crow SJ, Cao L, Peterson CB, Durkin N. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47(3):281–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gollust SE, Eboh I, Barry CL. Picturing obesity: analyzing the social epidemiology of obesity conveyed through US news media images. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74(10):1544–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gollwitzer PM, Sheeran P. Self-regulation of consumer decision making and behaviour: the role of implementation intentions. J Consum Psychol. 2009;19:593–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Green AR, Larkin M, Sullivan V. ‘Oh stuff it!’ The experience and explanation of diet failure: an exploration using interpretative phenomenological analysis. J Health Psychol. 2009;14(7):997–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grilo CM, Masheb RM, Wilson GT, Gueorguieva R, White MA. Cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioural weight loss and sequential treatment for obese patients with binge-eating disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79(5):675–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gross JJ. Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: Guilford Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  56. Gu J, Strauss C, Bond R, Cavanagh K. How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clin Psychol Rev. 2015;37:1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Guertin C, Rocchi M, Pelletier LG. The role of motivation and eating regulation on the physical and psychological health of cardiovascular disease patients. J Health Psychol. 2015;20:543–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haedt-Matt AA, Keel PK. Revisiting the affect regulation model of binge eating: a meta-analysis of studies using ecological momentary assessment. Psychol Bull. 2011;137(4):660.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harding JL, Backholer K, Williams ED, Peeters A, Cameron AJ, Hare MJ, Shaw JE, Magliano DJ. Psychosocial stress is positively associated with body mass index gain over 5 years: evidence from the longitudinal AusDiab study. Obesity. 2014;22(1):277–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hawkins RC, Clement PF. Binge eating: measurement problems and a conceptual model. In: Hawkins RC, Fremouw WJ, Clement PF, editors. The binge purge syndrome: diagnosis, treatment, and research. New York: Springer; 1984. p. 229–51.Google Scholar
  61. Heatherton TF, Baumeister RF. Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psychol Bull. 1991;110:86–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hemmingsson E. A new model of the role of psychological and emotional distress in promoting obesity: conceptual review with implications for treatment and prevention. Obes Rev. 2014;15:769–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Herman C, Polivy J. Anxiety, restraint, and eating behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. 1975;84(6):666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hilbert A, Braehler E, Schmidt R, Löwe B, Häuser W, Zenger M. Self-compassion as a resource in the self-stigma process of overweight and obese individuals. Obes Facts. 2015;8(5):293–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hirth JM, Rahman M, Berenson AB. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder with fast food and soda consumption and unhealthy weight loss behaviors among young women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(8):1141–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hohlstein LA, Smith GT, Atlas JG. An application of expectancy theory to eating disorders: development and validation of measures of eating and dieting expectancies. Psychol Assess. 1998;10:49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:348–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hudson JI, Lalonde JK, Coit CE, Tsuang MT, McElroy SL, Crow SJ, Pope HG Jr. Longitudinal study of the diagnosis of components of the metabolic syndrome in individuals with binge-eating disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1568–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jackson SE, Wardle J, Johnson F, Finer N, Beeken RJ. The impact of a health professional recommendation on weight loss attempts in overweight and obese British adults: a cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open. 2013;3(11):e003693.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kirk SF, Price SL, Penney TL, Rehman L, Lyons RF, Piccinini-Vallis H, Vallis TM, Curran J, Aston M. Blame, shame, and lack of support: a multilevel study on obesity management. Qual Health Res. 2014;24(6):790–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kristeller JL, Wolever RQ. Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: the conceptual foundation. Eat Disord. 2010;19(1):49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kubzansky LD, et al. The weight of traumatic stress: a prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and weight status in women. JAMA Psychiat. 2014;71(1):44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Langerak M. Evaluation of a non-diet cognitive behavioural treatment for overweight adults. Unpublished thesis, Department of Medical Psychology and Neuropsychology Tilburg University. 2009. http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=97344.
  74. Latner J, Durso LE, Mond JM. Health and health-related quality of life among treatment seeking overweight and obese adults: associations with internalised weight bias. J Eat Disord. 2013;1(1):1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. LeBlanc V, Bégin C, Corneau L, et al. Gender differences in dietary intakes: what is the contribution of motivational variables? J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015;28(1):37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Linehan. Cognitive behaviour therapy of borderline personality disorder. Guilford: New York; 1993.Google Scholar
  77. Lustman PJ, Clouse RE. Depression in diabetic patients: the relationship between mood and glycemic control. J Diabetes Complicat. 2005;19(2):113–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Magallares A, Pais-Ribeiro JL. Mental health and obesity: a meta-analysis. Appl Res Qual Life. 2014;9:295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Major B, Hunger JM, DP B, Miller CT. The ironic effects of weight stigma. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2014;51:74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Malterud K, Ulriksen K. Obesity, stigma and responsibility in health care: a synthesis of qualitative studies. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-Being. 2011;6:e8404.  https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v6i4.8404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mantzios M, Wilson JC. Exploring mindfulness and mindfulness with self-compassion-centered interventions to assist weight loss: theoretical considerations and preliminary results of a randomized pilot study. Mindfulness. 2015a;6(4):824–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mantzios M, Wilson JC. Making concrete construals mindful: a novel approach for developing mindfulness and self-compassion to assist weight loss. Psychol Health. 2015b;29(4):422–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Markey CN. Smart people don’t diet: how psychology, common sense and the latest science can help you lose weight permanently. Boston: Da Capo/Lifelong Books; 2014.Google Scholar
  84. Markey CN, August KJ, Bailey LC, Markey PM, Nave CS. The pivotal role of psychology in a comprehensive theory of obesity. Health Psychol Open. 2016;3(1):2055102916634365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marks DF. Homeostatic theory of obesity. Health Psychol Open. 2015;2(1), Article first published online: June 23, 2015;Issue published: January 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Masheb RM, Grilo CM. Eating patterns and breakfast consumption in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44(11):1545–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mathes WF, Brownley KA, Mo X, Bulik CM. The biology of binge eating. Appetite. 2009;52(3):545–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mayhew SL, Gilbert P. Compassionate mind training with people who hear malevolent voices: a case series report. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2008;15:113–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McElroy SL, Kotwal R, Malhotra S, Nelson EB, Keck PE, Nemeroff CB. Are mood disorders and obesity related? A review for the mental health professional. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(5):634–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McEvoy PM, Nathan P. Perceived costs and benefits of behavioral change: reconsidering the value of ambivalence for psychotherapy outcomes. [comparative study]. J Clin Psychol. 2007;63:1217–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McPherson K, Kopelman P, Butland B, Jebb S, Thomas S et al. Tackling obesities: future choices-project report. 2nd ed. Government; Office for Science; 2007. Available: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/foresight/docs/obesity/17.pdf
  92. Michopoulos V, Powers A, Moore C, Villarreal S, Ressler KJ, Bradley B. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating. Appetite. 2015;91:129–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller CE, Johnson JL. Motivational interviewing. Can Nurse. 2001;97:32–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Miller WR, Rose GS. Motivational interviewing and decisional balance: contrasting responses to client ambivalence. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2015;43:129–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Moulton SJ, Newman E, Power K, Swanson V, Day K. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation? Child Abuse Negl. 2015;39:167–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mushquash AR, McMahan M. Dialectical behavior therapy skills training reduces binge eating among patients seeking weight-management services: preliminary evidence. Eat Weight Disord-Stud Anorexia, Bulimia Obes. 2015;20(3):415–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nauta H, Hospers H, Kok G, Jansen A. A comparison between a cognitive and a behavioral treatment for obese binge eaters and obese non-binge eaters. Behav Ther. 2000;31(3):441–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Neff KD, Vonk R. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself. J Pers. 2009;77(1):23–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ogden J. Some problems with social cognition models: a pragmatic and conceptual analysis. Health Psychol. 2003;22:424–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ogden J, Clementi C. The experience of being obese and the many consequences of stigma. J Obes. 2010;2010:429098.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/429098. 9 pagesCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Ormston R, Curtice J, editors. British social attitudes: the 32nd report. London: NatCen Social Research; 2015.Google Scholar
  102. Otis N, Pelletier LG. Women’s regulation styles for eating behaviors and outcomes: the mediating role of approach and avoidance food planning. Motiv Emot. 2008;32:55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pagoto SL, Schneider KL, Bodenlos JS, Appelhans BM, Whited MC, Ma Y, Lemon SC. Association of post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity in a nationally representative sample. Obesity. 2012;20(1):200–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Palacios JM, Pazos A, Hoyer D. A short history of the 5-HT2C receptor: from the choroid plexus to depression, obesity and addiction treatment. Psychopharmacology. 2017;234:1395.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4545-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Peat CM, Shapiro JR, Bulik CM, Brownley KA. Evidence-informed strategies for binge eating disorder and obesity. In: Evidence based treatments for eating disorders: children, adolescents and adults. 2nd ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2014.Google Scholar
  106. Pelletier LG, Dion SC, Slovenic-D’Angelo M. Why do you regulate what you eat? Relationship between forms of regulation, eating behaviors, sustained dietary behavior change, and psychological adjustment. Motiv Emot. 2004;28:245–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pelletier LG, Guertin C, Pope JP, Rocchi M. Homeostasis balance, homeostasis imbalance or distinct motivational processes? Comments on Marks (2015) ‘Homeostatic Theory of Obesity’. Health Psychol Open. 2016;3(1):2055102915624512.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Perkonigg A, Owashi T, Stein MB, Kirschbaum C, Wittchen HU. Posttraumatic stress disorder and obesity: evidence for a risk association. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Yeazel MW, Hellerstedt WL, Griffiin JM, VanRyn M. Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. Obes Rev. 2015;16:319–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, Corti S, Vegliante N, Molinari E, Castelnuovo G. Addressing motivation in globesity treatment: a new challenge for clinical psychology. Front Psychol. 2012;3:317.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Puhl R, Heuer C. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity. 2009;17:941–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Puhl RM, Andreyeva T, Brownell KD. Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in American. Int J Obes. 2008;32:992–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rapoport L, Clark M, Wardle J. Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1726–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ratcliffe D, Ellison N. Obesity and internalized weight stigma: a formulation model for an emerging psychological problem. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2015;43(02):239–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Roosen MA, Safer D, Adler S, Cebolla A, Van Strien T. Group dialectical behavior therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters; a pilot study. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27(4):1141–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ryan RM, Connell JP. Perceived locus of causality and internalization: examining reasons for acting in two domains. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57:749–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sabin JA, Marini M, Nosek BA. Implicit and explicit anti-fat bias among a large sample of medical doctors by BMI, race/ethnicity and gender. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48448.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schwartz TL, Nihalani N, Jindal S, Virk S, Jones N. Psychiatric medication-induced obesity: a review. Obes Rev. 2004;5(2):115–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sharma AM, Kushner RF. A proposed clinical staging system for obesity. Int J Obes. 2009;33(3):289–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sinha R, Jastreboff AM. Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9):827–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Southwick SM, Bonanno GA, Masten AS, PanterBrick C, Yehuda R. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014;5(1):25338.  https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.25338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sumithran P, Proietto J. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss. Clin Sci. 2013;124(4):231–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Swift JA, Hanlon S, El-Redy L, Puhl RM, Glazebrook C. Weights bias among UK trainee dietitians, doctors, nurses and nutritionists. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;26(4):395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tagliabue A, Repossi I, Trentani C, Ferraris C, Martinelli V, Vinai P. Cognitive-behavioral treatment reduces attrition in treatment-resistant obese women: results from a 6-month nested case-control study. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2015;36(4):368–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Tang DW, Fellows LK, Small DM, Dagher A. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(3):317–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Telch CF. Skills training treatment for adaptive affect regulation in a woman with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 1997;22:77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Thomas C, Hyppönen E, Power C. Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: the role of childhood adversity. Pediatrics. 2008;121(5):e1240–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tomiyama AJ. Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model. Appetite. 2014;82:8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tuah NAA, Amiel C, Qureshi S, Car J, Kaur B, Majeed A. Transtheoretical model for dietary and physical exercise modification in weight loss management for overweight and obese adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;5(10):CD008066.Google Scholar
  130. Turnball J. The context of therapy. In: Marshall S, Turnball J, editors. Cognitive behaviour therapy: an introduction to theory and practice. London: Baillière Tindall; 1996.Google Scholar
  131. van Strien T, van de Laar FA, Van Leeuwe JFL, Lucassen PLBJ, van der Hoogen HJM, al RGEHM. The dieting dilemma in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: does dietary restraint predict weight gain 4 years after diagnosis? Health Psychol. 2007;26:105–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vanitallie TB. Stress: a risk factor for serious illness. Metabolism. 2002;51(6 Suppl 1):40–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Villarejo C, Fernández-Aranda F, Jiménez-Murcia S, Peñas-Lledó E, Granero R, Penelo E, Tinahones FJ, Sancho C, Vilarrasa N, Montserrat-Gil de Bernabé M, Casanueva FF. Lifetime obesity in patients with eating disorders: increasing prevalence, clinical and personality correlates. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20(3):250–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wagner HS, Ahlstrom B, Redden JP, Vickers Z, Mann T. The myth of comfort food. Health Psychol. 2014;33(12):1552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Welch E, Jangmo A, Thornton LM, Norring C, von Hausswolff-Juhlin Y, Herman BK, Pawaskar M, Larsson H, Bulik CM. Treatment-seeking patients with binge-eating disorder in the Swedish national registers: clinical course and psychiatric comorbidity. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):163.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Werrij MQ, Jansen A, Mulkens S, Elgersma HJ, Ament HJ, Hospers HJ. Adding cognitive therapy to dietetic treatment is associated with less relapse in obesity. J Psychosom Res. 2009;67(4):315–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Westenhoefer J. The therapeutic challenge: behavioural changes for long term weight maintenance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(Supp 1):S851p.Google Scholar
  138. Wilson GT, Brownell KD. Behavioral treatment for obesity. In: Fairburn CG, Brownell KD, editors. Eating disorders and obesity: a comprehensive handbook. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2002. p. 460–4.Google Scholar
  139. Wingo BC, Desmond RA, Brantley P, Appel L, Svetkey L, Stevens VJ, Ard JD. Self-efficacy as a predictor of weight change and behavior change in the PREMIER trial. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2013;45(4):314–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wiser S, Telch CF. Dialectical behaviour therapy for binge eating disorder. J Clin Psychol. 1999;55:755–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wott CB, Carels RA. Overt weight stigma, psychological distress and weight loss treatment outcomes. J Health Psychol. 2010;15(4):608–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation TrustTauntonUK

Personalised recommendations