Additive Manufacturing for Tissue Engineering

  • Solaleh Miar
  • Ashkan Shafiee
  • Teja Guda
  • Roger Narayan
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering book series (RSBE)


Additive manufacturing is becoming a focus of attention owing to its unique abilities to fabricate different objects using various materials. Perhaps printing technologies are the most popular type of additive manufacturing that is gaining ground in a wide range of industrial and academic utilization. Three- and two-dimensional printing of different materials such as ceramics, plastics, and metals as well as electronic functional materials is considered as the next revolution in science and technology. Importantly, these technologies are being used extensively in medical applications. Tissue engineering, which aims to fabricate human tissues and organs, is benefiting from the reproducible, computer-controlled, and precise procedure that can be obtained by printers. Three-dimensional printings of scaffolds, cell-laden biomaterials, and cellular (scaffold-free) materials hold a great promise to advance the tissue engineering field toward the fabrication of functional tissues and organs. Here, we review the utilization of different printing technologies for various tissue engineering applications. The application of printers in tissue engineering of bones, cartilages, and tendons and ligaments is di. Moreover, an overview of the advancements in printing skeletal muscles as well as the cardiovascular system is given. Finally, future directions and challenges will be described.

List of Abbreviations


Apparent tissue surface tension


Additive manufacturing


Anterior cruciate ligament


Computer aided design


Computer aided design and drafting


Digital light processing


Electron beam melting


Extra cellular matrix


Fused deposition modeling


Fused filament fabrication






Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells


Myosin heavy chain


Mesenchymal stem cells


Pressure-assisted microsyringe




Precision extrusion deposition


Polyethylene glycol


Poly (ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate


Polyethylene oxide


Poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate)


Polylactic acid


Poly (L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide)


Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid


Poly (L-lactide) acid


Poly (propylene fumarate)


Scanning electron microscopy




Selective laser melting


Selective laser sintering


Tricalcium phosphate




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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Solaleh Miar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashkan Shafiee
    • 3
  • Teja Guda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roger Narayan
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Graduate Program in Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  4. 4.UNC/NCSU Joint Department of Biomedical EngineeringRaleighUSA
  5. 5.Diabetes Center for Research, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUNC School of MedicineChapel HillUSA

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