Skin Drug Reactions

Living reference work entry


Drug-induced reactions can be associated with multiple cutaneous manifestations. Most are relatively benign and resolve after a drug is withdrawn, but severe, potentially life-threatening eruptions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia, and systemic symptoms can occur. Many factors interact to determine the probability of a drug to induce a skin adverse event; they are divided in two main categories including drug factors (molecular size of the drug and route of administration) and host factors (age, gender, genetics, associated diseases, and environmental factors). These reactions are attributed to immunologic mechanisms including hypersensitivity reactions type I (IgE-dependent), type II (antibody-dependent), type III (immune complex-mediated), and type IV (cell-mediated) as well as non-immunological mechanism.


Skin drug reaction Drug-induced reaction Adverse drug reaction Exanthematous eruption Maculopapular eruption Morbilliform eruption Urticarial eruption Anaphylaxis Anaphylactoid reaction Photosensitivity Drug-induced phototoxic reaction Drug-induced photoallergic reaction Drug-induced porphyria cutanea tarda Drug-induced vasculitis Acneiform eruption Pustular eruption Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis Stevens-Johnson syndrome Toxic epidermal necrolysis Lyell syndrome Drug-induced pseudoporphyria Drug-induced linear IgA disease Drug-induced pemphigus Pemphigus foliaceus Pemphigus vulgaris Drug-induced bullous pemphigoid Fixed drug eruption Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis Warfarin-induced skin necrosis Drug-induced lichenoid eruption Drug-induced cutaneous pseudolymphoma Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Drug-induced alopecia Alopecia areata Telogen effluvium Anagen effluvium Drug-induced hirsutism Drug-induced hypertrichosis Drug-induced hair discoloration Xerostomia Stomatitis Mucosal hyperpigmentation Gingival hyperplasia Skin hyperpigmentation Skin hypopigmentation Purpura Purpura simplex Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura Erythema annulare centrifugum Psoriasiform eruption Exfoliative dermatitis Exfoliative dermatitis Erythroderma DRESS syndrome Eczematous eruption Scleroderma-like reaction Erythema nodosum Beau’s line Onychomadesis Leukonychia Melanonychia Mee’s line Muehrcke’s line Onycholysis Photo-onycholysis Subungual hemorrhage Paronychia Periungual pyogenic granuloma Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colentina Clinical Hospital, 2nd Clinic of DermatologyCarol Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Colentina Clinical Hospital, Department of Paediatric DermatologyCarol Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Colentina Clinical HospitalThe Second Clinic of DermatologyBucharestRomania
  4. 4.Clinical Hospital of Infectious and Tropical Diseases “Dr. Victor Babes,”Clinic of DermatologyBucharestRomania

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