The Skin and the Eyes

  • Anup Kumar TiwaryEmail author
  • Piyush KumarEmail author
  • Soumyajit RoychoudhuryEmail author
  • Anupam DasEmail author
  • Adrija DattaEmail author
  • Raghuraj S. HegdeEmail author
Living reference work entry


Eyes and skin, both are the well-known and potential sites of reflection of systemic/internal disease processes such as collagen vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, genodermatoses and many others. Occasionally, some diseases may have only ocular and cutaneous manifestations. Therefore, both of these organs should be carefully examined and assessed before coming to a diagnosis and initiating treatment.


Eye Viral infection Herpes simplex HSV-1 HSV-2 Herpes zoster Shingles Ophthalmic herpes zoster Syphilis Ocular syphilis Lyme disease Borreliosis Cat-scratch disease Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome Leprosy Onchocerciasis River blindness Shistosomiasis Bilharziasis Toxocariasis Ocular toxocariasis Atopic dermatitis Atopic eye disease Rosacea Ocular rosacea Autoimmune bullous disease Pemphigus foliaceous Pemphigus vulgaris Mucous membrane pemphigoid Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita Linear IgA disease Paraneoplastic pemphigus Stevens-Johnson syndrome Toxic epidermal necrolysis Systemic lupus erythematosus Dermatomyositis Sarcoidosis Behcet disease Keratinization disorder X-linked ichthyosis Keratitis-ichthyosis and deafness syndrome KID syndrome Ichthyosis follicularis-alopecia and photophobia syndrome IFAP syndrome Refsum disease Heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis Lamellar ichthyosis Richner-Hanhart syndrome Oculocutaneous tyrosinemia Sjogren-Larsson syndrome Pigmentary disorder Hypomelanosis Oculocutaneous albinism Waardenburg syndrome Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome Chediak-Higashi syndrome Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome Hypomelanosis of Ito, hypermelanosis Incontinentia pigmenti Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome Dyskeratosis congenita Zinsser-Cole-Engman syndrome Nevus of Ota Fuscoceruleus ophthalmomaxillaris Photosensitive dermatosis Bloom syndrome Xeroderma pigmentosum Rothmond-Thomson syndrome Poikiloderma congenitale Cockayane syndrome Metabolic disorder Fabry disease Homocystinuria Lipoid proteinosis Urbach-Wiethe disease Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae Hurler syndrome Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hartnup disease Vascular syndrome Posterior fossa malformations-hemangiomas-arterial anomalies-cardiac defects and Coarctation of the aorta and eye abnormalities PHACES syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome Neurocutaneous syndrome Tuberous sclerosis complex Neurofibromatosis Adnexal neoplasm Epithelial hyperplasia Seborrheic keratosis Verruca vulgaris Cutaneous horn Epithelial cyst Milia Pilar cyst Trichilemmal cyst Molluscum contagiosum Chalazion Hordeolum Stye Sebaceous cyst Epidermoid cyst Xanthelasma Syringoma Eccrine hidrocystoma Apocrine hidrocystoma Cystadenomas Sudoriferous cyst Melanocytic nevus Lentigo simplex Solar lentigo Lentigo senilis Liver spot Blepharitis Actinic keratosis Bowen’s disease Keratoacanthoma Lentigo maligna Hutchinson’s melanotic freckle Precancerous melanosis Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Sebaceous cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatology DepartmentSubharti Medical College and HospitalMeerutIndia
  2. 2.Dermatology DepartmentKatihar Medical CollegeKatiharIndia
  3. 3.Consultant DermatologistRejuven Skin ClinicBerhampurIndia
  4. 4.Dermatology DepartmentKPC Medical CollegeKolkataIndia
  5. 5.DermatologyMedical College and HospitalKolkataIndia
  6. 6.Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery & Ophthalmic Oncology serviceManipal HospitalBangaloreIndia
  7. 7.Adjunct Faculty, Department of OphthalmologyKempegowda Institute of Medical SciencesBangaloreIndia

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