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Thyroid Physiology and Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

  • Bijay Vaidya
  • Shiao-Yng Chan
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

Thyroid disorders are common in pregnancy and can result in serious complications for the pregnant woman and her child. It is well recognized that optimum treatment of both overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism reduces the complications, and pregnant women with these conditions should be treated. However, because of limited evidence for the benefit from intervention studies, it remains controversial whether subclinical thyroid diseases, such as subclinical hypothyroidism, maternal hypothyroxinemia, and euthyroid autoimmune thyroid disease should be treated and whether all pregnant women should be screened for these conditions. Management of many thyroid disorders (for example, Graves’ disease) in pregnant women is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach for optimal outcome. This chapter summarizes current knowledge of thyroid physiology and management of thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

Keywords

Graves’ disease Hypothyroidism Human chorionic gonadotrophin Iodine Pregnancy TPO antibodies TSH receptor antibodies Thyroxine Hypothyroxinemia 

Abbreviations

Ab

Antibodies

ART

Assisted reproductive technology

FNAC

Fine needle aspiration cytology

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotrophin

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

HPT

Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid

IQ

Intelligence quotient

ICCIDD

International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders

T3

Triiodothyronine

T4

Thyroxine

TBG

Thyroxine binding globulin

Tg

Thyroglobulin

Th1

Type 1 helper T cell

Th2

Type 2 helper T cell

TPO

Thyroid peroxidase

TR

Thyroid hormone receptor

TREG

Regulatory CD4 + CD25 + T cells

TSH

Thyrotrophin

UIC

Urinary iodine concentration

WHO

World Health Organisation

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter HospitalUniversity of Exeter Medical SchoolExeterUK
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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