Thyroid Physiology and Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

  • Bijay VaidyaEmail author
  • Shiao-Yng Chan
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)


Thyroid disorders are common in pregnancy and can result in serious complications for the pregnant woman and her child. It is well recognized that optimum treatment of both overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism reduces the complications, and pregnant women with these conditions should be treated. However, because of limited evidence for the benefit from intervention studies, it remains controversial whether subclinical thyroid diseases, such as subclinical hypothyroidism, maternal hypothyroxinemia, and euthyroid autoimmune thyroid disease should be treated and whether all pregnant women should be screened for these conditions. Management of many thyroid disorders (for example, Graves’ disease) in pregnant women is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach for optimal outcome. This chapter summarizes current knowledge of thyroid physiology and management of thyroid disorders in pregnancy.


Graves’ disease Hypothyroidism Human chorionic gonadotrophin Iodine Pregnancy TPO antibodies TSH receptor antibodies Thyroxine Hypothyroxinemia 





Assisted reproductive technology


Fine needle aspiration cytology


Human chorionic gonadotrophin


Human leukocyte antigen




Intelligence quotient


International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders






Thyroxine binding globulin




Type 1 helper T cell


Type 2 helper T cell


Thyroid peroxidase


Thyroid hormone receptor


Regulatory CD4 + CD25 + T cells




Urinary iodine concentration


World Health Organisation


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter HospitalUniversity of Exeter Medical SchoolExeterUK
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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