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Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

  • Claudio Marcocci
  • Terry J. Smith
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy aka Graves’ orbitopathy (GO), represents the periocular component of Graves’ disease (GD), for which safe and effective therapies remain elusive. The central pathogenic event in GD is loss of immune tolerance to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and generation of activating anti-TSHR antibodies. Recent evidence suggests that TSHR might collaborate with other proteins, such as the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in the pathogenesis of GO. In this chapter we have attempted to review the most most recent insights into disease mechanisms underlying GO, strategies for evaluating patients, and currently available therapeutic strategies and those remedies that are in development.

Keywords

Ophthalmopathy Autoimmune Inflammation 

Abbreviations

AKT

Protein kinase B

Arg

Arginine

CAS

Clinical activity score

CD

Cluster of differentiation

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, also known as CD152

DON

Dysthyroid optic neuropathy

FRAP

FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein

GD

Graves’ disease

GO

Graves’ orbitopathy, also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

HA

Hyaluronan

HLA-DRβ

Human leukocyte antigen DRβ

IGF-IR

Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor

IL

Interleukin

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin

OR

Orbital radiotherapy

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

PGHS-2

Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2

PTPN22

Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22

QoL

Quality of life

RANTES

Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted

TGF-beta

Transforming growth factor beta

THYPRO

Thyroid patient reported outcome

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TSHR Ab

Thyrotropin receptor antibodies

TSHR

Thyrotropin receptor

TSI

Stimulating TSHR Ab

UDP

Uridine diphosphate

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Kellogg Eye Center and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

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