Advertisement

Diabetes, Depression, and Cognitive Disorders

  • Richard I. G. Holt
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

The interactions between diabetes and the mind are complex; physical illness increases the risk of a number of psychiatric disorders, while mental illness and its treatment also alter the risks of diabetes and worsen both acute metabolic and long-term outcomes of diabetes.

The prevalence of depression is approximately 1.5 to 2-fold higher in people with diabetes compared with the general population. Approximately 10% of people with diabetes will have a formal diagnosis of depression and around a quarter have significant depressive symptoms. Microvascular and macrovascular complications and treatment with insulin are associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms. The underlying mechanisms are multifactorial and include genetic and environmental factors as well as disease and treatment effects. The presence of depression adversely affects diabetes outcomes; quality of life and glycemic control are worsened, while the rates of microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality are increased in people with depression. Screening for depression in people with diabetes and prompt treatment, where necessary, is recommended.

Diabetes has modest effects on certain aspects of cognition, including general intelligence, psychomotor speed, and mental flexibility, particularly when diagnosed in children under the age of 7 years.

Diabetes increases the risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Approximately 1 in 15 cases of dementia is attributable to diabetes. Insulin directly affects amyloid β formation. Dementia impedes the person with diabetes’ ability to self-manage their diabetes and mandates a change in glycemic targets and management strategies.

Keywords

Diabetes Depression Diabetes-related distress Cognitive function Dementia Alzheimer’s disease 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Richard Holt has received fees for lecturing and consultancy from the following companies: Eli Lilly, Janssen, Lundbeck, Novo Nordisk, Novartis, Otsuka, Sanofi, Sunovion, Takeda, and MSD.

References

  1. Abdelhafiz AH, Chakravorty P, Gupta S, Haque A, Sinclair AJ. Can hypoglycaemic medications be withdrawn in older people with type 2 diabetes? Int J Clin Pract. 2014;68(6):790–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriaanse MC, Snoek FJ, Dekker JM, Spijkerman AM, Nijpels G, Twisk JW, et al. No substantial psychological impact of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes following targeted population screening: the Hoorn Screening Study. Diabet Med. 2004;21(9):992–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aikens JE, Perkins DW, Piette JD, Lipton B. Association between depression and concurrent type 2 diabetes outcomes varies by diabetes regimen. Diabet Med. 2008;25(11):1324–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali S, Stone MA, Peters JL, Davies MJ, Khunti K. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2006;23(11):1165–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2005.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(6):1069–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard KD, Skinner TC, Peveler R. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with type 1 diabetes: systematic literature review. Diabet Med. 2006;23(4):445–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnard K, Peveler RC, Holt RI. Antidepressant medication as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation: systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(10):3337–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumeister H, Hutter N, Bengel J. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for depression in patients with diabetes mellitus and depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD008381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Biessels GJ, Deary IJ, Ryan CM. Cognition and diabetes: a lifespan perspective. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(2):184–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Blasetti A, Chiuri RM, Tocco AM, Di GC, Mattei PA, Ballone E, et al. The effect of recurrent severe hypoglycemia on cognitive performance in children with type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Child Neurol. 2011;26(11):1383–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Brands AM, Biessels GJ, de Haan EH, Kappelle LJ, Kessels RP. The effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):726–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Brands AM, Kessels RP, Hoogma RP, Henselmans JM, van der Beek Boter JW, Kappelle LJ, et al. Cognitive performance, psychological well-being, and brain magnetic resonance imaging in older patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55(6):1800–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Brenner AB, Zimmerman MA, Bauermeister JA, Caldwell CH. The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42(6):792–806.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Browning CR, Cagney KA, Iveniuk J. Neighborhood stressors and cardiovascular health: crime and C-reactive protein in Dallas, USA. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75(7):1271–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Broyles ST, Staiano AE, Drazba KT, Gupta AK, Sothern M, Katzmarzyk PT. Elevated C-reactive protein in children from risky neighborhoods: evidence for a stress pathway linking neighborhoods and inflammation in children. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45419.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carney RM, Freedland KE. Depression, mortality, and medical morbidity in patients with coronary heart disease. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(3):241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carper MM, Traeger L, Gonzalez JS, Wexler DJ, Psaros C, Safren SA. The differential associations of depression and diabetes distress with quality of life domains in type 2 diabetes. J Behav Med. 2014;37(3):501–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Champaneri S, Wand GS, Malhotra SS, Casagrande SS, Golden SH. Biological basis of depression in adults with diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2010;10(6):396–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheng G, Huang C, Deng H, Wang H. Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Intern Med J. 2012;42(5):484–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cleal B, Panton UH, Willaing I, Holt RI. Diabetes and depression in Denmark 1996–2010: national data stratified by occupational status and annual income. Diabet Med. 2017;34(1):108–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Craft S, Baker LD, Montine TJ, Minoshima S, Watson GS, Claxton A, et al. Intranasal insulin therapy for Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot clinical trial. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(1):29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crichton GE, Elias MF, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Bryan J, Frisardi V. Metabolic syndrome, cognitive performance, and dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;30(Suppl 2):S77–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Cummings JL, Isaacson RS, Schmitt FA, Velting DM. A practical algorithm for managing Alzheimer’s disease: what, when, and why? Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015;2(3):307–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG, Johnson RW, Kelley KW. From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(1):46–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Galan BE, Zoungas S, Chalmers J, Anderson C, Dufouil C, Pillai A, et al. Cognitive function and risks of cardiovascular disease and hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. Diabetologia. 2009;52(11):2328–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Groot M, Anderson R, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. Association of depression and diabetes complications: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med. 2001;63(4):619–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. de Vet E, de Ridder DT, de Wit JB. Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews. Obes Rev. 2011;12(5):e130–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Do DP, Diez Roux AV, Hajat A, Auchincloss AH, Merkin SS, Ranjit N, et al. Circadian rhythm of cortisol and neighborhood characteristics in a population-based sample: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Health Place. 2011;17(2):625–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dulin-Keita A, Casazza K, Fernandez JR, Goran MI, Gower B. Do neighbourhoods matter? Neighbourhood disorder and long-term trends in serum cortisol levels. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66(1):24–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Egede LE, Nietert PJ, Zheng D. Depression and all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality among adults with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(6):1339–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Exalto LG, Biessels GJ, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Katon WJ, Minkoff JR, et al. Risk score for prediction of 10 year dementia risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013;1(3):183–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferguson SC, Blane A, Wardlaw J, Frier BM, Perros P, McCrimmon RJ, et al. Influence of an early-onset age of type 1 diabetes on cerebral structure and cognitive function. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(6):1431–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JB. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, research version, patient edition. (SCID-I/P). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute; 2002.Google Scholar
  35. Fisher L, Glasgow RE, Strycker LA. The relationship between diabetes distress and clinical depression with glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(5):1034–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher L, Hessler DM, Polonsky WH, Masharani U, Peters AL, Blumer I, et al. Prevalence of depression in type 1 diabetes and the problem of over-diagnosis. Diabet Med. 2016;33(11):1590–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Franc DT, Kodl CT, Mueller BA, Muetzel RL, Lim KO, Seaquist ER. High connectivity between reduced cortical thickness and disrupted white matter tracts in long-standing type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2011;60(1):315–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gangwisch JE. Epidemiological evidence for the links between sleep, circadian rhythms and metabolism. Obes Rev. 2009;10(Suppl 2):37–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gaudieri PA, Chen R, Greer TF, Holmes CS. Cognitive function in children with type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(9):1892–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Geijselaers SL, Sep SJ, Stehouwer CD, Biessels GJ. Glucose regulation, cognition, and brain MRI in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(1):75–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilbody S, Sheldon T, House A. Screening and case-finding instruments for depression: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2008;178(8):997–1003.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gold M, Alderton C, Zvartau-Hind M, Egginton S, Saunders AM, Irizarry M, et al. Rosiglitazone monotherapy in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;30(2):131–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldney RD, Phillips PJ, Fisher LJ, Wilson DH. Diabetes, depression, and quality of life: a population study. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1066–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gonzalez JS, Peyrot M, McCarl LA, Collins EM, Serpa L, Mimiaga MJ, et al. Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2398–403.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hermanns N, Kulzer B, Krichbaum M, Kubiak T, Haak T. Affective and anxiety disorders in a German sample of diabetic patients: prevalence, comorbidity and risk factors. Diabet Med. 2005;22(3):293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hermanns N, Scheff C, Kulzer B, Weyers P, Pauli P, Kubiak T, et al. Association of glucose levels and glucose variability with mood in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2007;50(5):930–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hershey T, Lillie R, Sadler M, White NH. A prospective study of severe hypoglycemia and long-term spatial memory in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2004;5(2):63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hislop AL, Fegan PG, Schlaeppi MJ, Duck M, Yeap BB. Prevalence and associations of psychological distress in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2008;25(1):91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ho N, Sommers MS, Lucki I. Effects of diabetes on hippocampal neurogenesis: links to cognition and depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(8):1346–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holt RI, Katon WJ. Dialogue on diabetes and depression: dealing with the double burden of co-morbidity. J Affect Disord. 2012;142:S1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holt RI, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Key concepts in screening for depression in people with diabetes. J Affect Disord. 2012;142:S72–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holt RI, de Groot M, Golden SH. Diabetes and depression. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(6):491.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hughes TM, Ryan CM, Aizenstein HJ, Nunley K, Gianaros PJ, Miller R, et al. Frontal gray matter atrophy in middle aged adults with type 1 diabetes is independent of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes complications. J Diabetes Complicat. 2013;27(6):558–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. International Diabetes Federation. Global guideline for type 2 diabetes. 2012. http://www.idf.org/guideline-type-2-diabetes. Last accessed 17 Sept 2016.
  55. Ismail K, Winkley K, Rabe-Hesketh S. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 2004;363(9421):1589–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jacobson AM, de Groot M, Samson JA. The effects of psychiatric disorders and symptoms on quality of life in patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus. Qual Life Res. 1997;6(1):11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jacobson AM, Musen G, Ryan CM, Silvers N, Cleary P, Waberski B, et al. Long-term effect of diabetes and its treatment on cognitive function. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(18):1842–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jacobson AM, Ryan CM, Cleary PA, Waberski BH, Weinger K, Musen G, et al. Biomedical risk factors for decreased cognitive functioning in type 1 diabetes: an 18 year follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Diabetologia. 2011;54(2):245–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Karb RA, Elliott MR, Dowd JB, Morenoff JD. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75(6):1038–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Katon WJ, Von Korff M, Lin EH, Simon G, Ludman E, Russo J, et al. The Pathways Study: a randomized trial of collaborative care in patients with diabetes and depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(10):1042–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Katon WJ, Lin EH, Von Korff M, Ciechanowski P, Ludman EJ, Young B, et al. Collaborative care for patients with depression and chronic illnesses. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2611–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Katona C, Peveler R, Dowrick C, Wessely S, Feinmann C, Gask L, et al. Pain symptoms in depression: definition and clinical significance. Clin Med. 2005;5(4):390–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Knol MJ, Twisk JW, Beekman AT, Heine RJ, Snoek FJ, Pouwer F. Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2006;49(5):837–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kodl CT, Franc DT, Rao JP, Anderson FS, Thomas W, Mueller BA, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging identifies deficits in white matter microstructure in subjects with type 1 diabetes that correlate with reduced neurocognitive function. Diabetes. 2008;57(11):3083–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Koekkoek PS, Ruis C, van den Donk M, Biessels GJ, Gorter KJ, Kappelle LJ, et al. Intensive multifactorial treatment and cognitive functioning in screen-detected type 2 diabetes – the ADDITION-Netherlands study: a cluster-randomized trial. J Neurol Sci. 2012;314(1–2):71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Koekkoek PS, Kappelle LJ, van den Berg E, Rutten GE, Biessels GJ. Cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus: guidance for daily care. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(3):329–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kovacs M, Mukerji P, Drash A, Iyengar S. Biomedical and psychiatric risk factors for retinopathy among children with IDDM. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(12):1592–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lamport DJ, Lawton CL, Mansfield MW, Dye L. Impairments in glucose tolerance can have a negative impact on cognitive function: a systematic research review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33(3):394–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Launer LJ, Miller ME, Williamson JD, Lazar RM, Gerstein HC, Murray AM, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(11):969–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Li C, Ford ES, Strine TW, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of depression among U.S. adults with diabetes: findings from the 2006 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):105–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li X, Song D, Leng SX. Link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: from epidemiology to mechanism and treatment. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:549–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lustman PJ, Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, de Groot M, Carney RM, Clouse RE. Depression and poor glycemic control: a meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(7):934–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lyoo IK, Yoon SJ, Musen G, Simonson DC, Weinger K, Bolo N, et al. Altered prefrontal glutamate-glutamine-gamma-aminobutyric acid levels and relation to low cognitive performance and depressive symptoms in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(8):878–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matcham F, Rayner L, Steer S, Hotopf M. The prevalence of depression in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52(12):2136–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McCarthy AM, Lindgren S, Mengeling MA, Tsalikian E, Engvall J. Factors associated with academic achievement in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):112–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McMartin SE, Jacka FN, Colman I. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health disorders: evidence from five waves of a national survey of Canadians. Prev Med. 2013;56(3–4):225–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mezuk B, Eaton WW, Albrecht S, Golden SH. Depression and type 2 diabetes over the lifespan: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2383–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell AJ, Malone D, Doebbeling CC. Quality of medical care for people with and without comorbid mental illness and substance misuse: systematic review of comparative studies. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194(6):491–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mommersteeg PM, Herr R, Pouwer F, Holt RI, Loerbroks A. The association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in the 2002 World Health Survey: an analysis of 231,797 individuals from 47 countries. Diabet Med. 2013;30(6):e208–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moran C, Phan TG, Chen J, Blizzard L, Beare R, Venn A, et al. Brain atrophy in type 2 diabetes: regional distribution and influence on cognition. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(12):4036–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: global burden of disease study. Lancet. 1997;349(9064):1498–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Musselman DL, Betan E, Larsen H, Phillips LS. Relationship of depression to diabetes types 1 and 2: epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(3):317–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management, NICE guidelines (NG17). 2015a. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng17. Last accessed 17 Sept 2016.
  84. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. NICE guidelines (NG28). 2015b. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng28. Last accessed 17 Sept 2016.
  85. Nefs G, Pouwer F, Denollet J, Pop V. The course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the Diabetes, Depression, Type D Personality Zuidoost-Brabant (DiaDDZoB) Study. Diabetologia. 2012;55(3):608–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Niedowicz DM, Nelson PT, Murphy MP. Alzheimer’s disease: pathological mechanisms and recent insights. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2011;9(4):674–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Northam EA, Anderson PJ, Jacobs R, Hughes M, Warne GL, Werther GA. Neuropsychological profiles of children with type 1 diabetes 6 years after disease onset. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(9):1541–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Northam EA, Rankins D, Cameron FJ. Therapy insight: the impact of type 1 diabetes on brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2006;2(2):78–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nouwen A, Winkley K, Twisk J, Lloyd CE, Peyrot M, Ismail K, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2010;53(12):2480–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nouwen A, Nefs G, Caramlau I, Connock M, Winkley K, Lloyd CE, et al. Prevalence of depression in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or undiagnosed diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(3):752–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Palta P, Schneider AL, Biessels GJ, Touradji P, Hill-Briggs F. Magnitude of cognitive dysfunction in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of six cognitive domains and the most frequently reported neuropsychological tests within domains. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014;20(3):278–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Park M, Katon WJ, Wolf FM. Depression and risk of mortality in individuals with diabetes: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013;35(3):217–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Payne ME, Steck SE, George RR, Steffens DC. Fruit, vegetable, and antioxidant intakes are lower in older adults with depression. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(12):2022–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Petrak F, Hardt J, Wittchen HU, Kulzer B, Hirsch A, Hentzelt F, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in an onset cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2003;19(3):216–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Petrak F, Baumeister H, Skinner TC, Brown A, Holt RI. Depression and diabetes: treatment and health-care delivery. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(6):472–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Pibernik-Okanovic M, Roglic G, Prasek M, Metelko Z. Emotional adjustment and metabolic control in newly diagnosed diabetic persons. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1996;34(2):99–105.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Polonsky WH, Anderson BJ, Lohrer PA, Welch G, Jacobson AM, Aponte JE, et al. Assessment of diabetes-related distress. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(6):754–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Pouwer F, Tack CJ, Geelhoed-Duijvestijn PH, Bazelmans E, Beekman AT, Heine RJ, et al. Limited effect of screening for depression with written feedback in outpatients with diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2011;54(4):741–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Punthakee Z, Miller ME, Launer LJ, Williamson JD, Lazar RM, Cukierman-Yaffee T, et al. Poor cognitive function and risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: post hoc epidemiologic analysis of the ACCORD trial. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(4):787–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reger MA, Watson GS, Green PS, Wilkinson CW, Baker LD, Cholerton B, et al. Intranasal insulin improves cognition and modulates beta-amyloid in early AD. Neurology. 2008;70(6):440–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Risner ME, Saunders AM, Altman JF, Ormandy GC, Craft S, Foley IM, et al. Efficacy of rosiglitazone in a genetically defined population with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacogenomics J. 2006;6(4):246–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Rovet JF, Ehrlich RM. The effect of hypoglycemic seizures on cognitive function in children with diabetes: a 7-year prospective study. J Pediatr. 1999;134(4):503–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Roy MS, Roy A, Affouf M. Depression is a risk factor for poor glycemic control and retinopathy in African-Americans with type 1 diabetes. Psychosom Med. 2007;69(6):537–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Roy T, Lloyd CE, Pouwer F, Holt RI, Sartorius N. Screening tools used for measuring depression among people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabet Med. 2012;29(2):164–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Ruis C, Biessels GJ, Gorter KJ, van den Donk M, Kappelle LJ, Rutten GE. Cognition in the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1261–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ryan C, Vega A, Drash A. Cognitive deficits in adolescents who developed diabetes early in life. Pediatrics. 1985;75(5):921–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Ryan CM, Geckle MO, Orchard TJ. Cognitive efficiency declines over time in adults with type 1 diabetes: effects of micro- and macrovascular complications. Diabetologia. 2003;46(7):940–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Scollan-Koliopoulos M, Herrera I, Romano K, Gregory C, Rapp K, Bleich D. Healthcare technician delivered screening of adults with diabetes to improve primary care provider recognition of depression. J Family Med Prim Care. 2012;1(2):97–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sellick SM, Crooks DL. Depression and cancer: an appraisal of the literature for prevalence, detection, and practice guideline development for psychological interventions. Psychooncology. 1999;8(4):315–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Serretti A, Mandelli L. Antidepressants and body weight: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(10):1259–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Simon GE, Katon WJ, VonKorff M, Unutzer J, Lin EH, Walker EA, et al. Cost-effectiveness of a collaborative care program for primary care patients with persistent depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(10):1638–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Simon GE, Katon WJ, Lin EH, Rutter C, Manning WG, Von KM, et al. Cost-effectiveness of systematic depression treatment among people with diabetes mellitus. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(1):65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sinclair AJ, Armes DG, Randhawa G, Bayer AJ. Caring for older adults with diabetes mellitus: characteristics of carers and their prime roles and responsibilities. Diabet Med. 2010;27(9):1055–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sinclair A, Morley JE, Rodriguez-Manas L, Paolisso G, Bayer T, Zeyfang A, et al. Diabetes mellitus in older people: position statement on behalf of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), the European Diabetes Working Party for Older People (EDWPOP), and the International Task Force of Experts in Diabetes. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13(6):497–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sinclair AJ, Gadsby R, Hillson R, Forbes A, Bayer AJ. Brief report: use of the mini-cog as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in diabetes in primary care. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013;100(1):e23–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sjoblom P, Tengblad A, Lofgren UB, Lannering C, Anderberg N, Rosenqvist U, et al. Can diabetes medication be reduced in elderly patients? An observational study of diabetes drug withdrawal in nursing home patients with tight glycaemic control. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;82(2):197–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Skinner ML, Shirtcliff EA, Haggerty KP, Coe CL, Catalano RF. Allostasis model facilitates understanding race differences in the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Dev Psychopathol. 2011;23(4):1167–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sturt J, Dennick K, Due-Christensen M, McCarthy K. The detection and management of diabetes distress in people with type 1 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2015;15(11):101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thorpe CT, Gellad WF, Good CB, Zhang S, Zhao X, Mor M, et al. Tight glycemic control and use of hypoglycemic medications in older veterans with type 2 diabetes and comorbid dementia. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(4):588–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Turner PR, O’Connor K, Tate WP, Abraham WC. Roles of amyloid precursor protein and its fragments in regulating neural activity, plasticity and memory. Prog Neurobiol. 2003;70(1):1–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. van den Berg E, Kloppenborg RP, Kessels RP, Kappelle LJ, Biessels GJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity: a systematic comparison of their impact on cognition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792(5):470–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Comorbid diabetes and depression: do E-health treatments achieve better diabetes control? Diabetes Manag. 2013;3(5):379–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Nuyen J, Stoop C, Chan J, Jacobson AM, Katon W, et al. Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder and significant depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010;32(4):380–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. van Duinkerken E, Schoonheim MM, Sanz-Arigita EJ, IJzerman RG, Moll AC, Snoek FJ, et al. Resting-state brain networks in type 1 diabetic patients with and without microangiopathy and their relation to cognitive functions and disease variables. Diabetes. 2012;61(7):1814–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. van Steenbergen-Weijenburg KM, de Vroege L, Ploeger RR, Brals JW, Vloedbeld MG, Veneman TF, et al. Validation of the PHQ-9 as a screening instrument for depression in diabetes patients in specialized outpatient clinics. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:235.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. van Steenbergen-Weijenburg KM, van Puffelen AL, Horn EK, Nuyen J, van Dam PS, van Benthem TB, et al. More co-morbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes with multiple complications. An observational study at a specialized outpatient clinic. Diabet Med. 2011;28(1):86–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Watson GS, Cholerton BA, Reger MA, Baker LD, Plymate SR, Asthana S, et al. Preserved cognition in patients with early Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment during treatment with rosiglitazone: a preliminary study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13(11):950–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Weyerer S. Physical inactivity and depression in the community. Evidence from the Upper Bavarian Field Study. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13(6):492–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Whitmer RA, Karter AJ, Yaffe K, Quesenberry CP Jr, Selby JV. Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2009;301(15):1565–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Williamson JD, Launer LJ, Bryan RN, Coker LH, Lazar RM, Gerstein HC, et al. Cognitive function and brain structure in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus after intensive lowering of blood pressure and lipid levels: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(3):324–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Willis T. Pharmaceutice rationalis sive diabtriba de medicamentorum operantionibus in humano corpore. Oxford; 1675.Google Scholar
  132. World Health Organisation. Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry 2.1. 1999. http://whoscan.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/xinterview.pdf. Last accessed 17 Sept 2016.
  133. Zilkens RR, Davis WA, Spilsbury K, Semmens JB, Bruce DG. Earlier age of dementia onset and shorter survival times in dementia patients with diabetes. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1246–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations