Pregnancy and Diabetes

  • Riki Bergel
  • Eran Hadar
  • Yoel Toledano
  • Moshe HodEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a state of glucose intolerance, which is diagnosed during pregnancy (ACOG 2013). It is one of the most common gestational-related morbidities and imposes various risks and complications for both mother and fetus. The consequences of these complications persist not only during gestation but also immediately after delivery and may impact health well into adulthood and as such aggravate outcomes of future pregnancies of the mother and her offspring. Thereby, GDM influences national healthcare many years after its occurrence. In an era in which obesity and diabetes mellitus are an epidemic, special attention to diagnosis and management of GDM women should be taken into consideration (Hod et al. 2015), as a possible window of opportunity to improve immediate and long-term health consequences.


Pregnancy Gestational diabetes mellitus Oral anti-diabetic agents Insulin 


  1. ACOG. PB137_Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(2 Pt 1):406–16. Scholar
  2. Agarwal MM. Evolution of screening and diagnostic criteria for GDM worldwide. In: Edition I, Kim C, Ferrara A, editors. Gestational diabetes during and after pregnancy. Illustrated edition. London: Springer; 2010. p. 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Algert S, Shragg P, Hollingsworth DR. Moderate caloric restriction in obese women with gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;65(4):487–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee opinion number 315, September 2005. Obesity in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005a;106(3):671–5. Scholar
  5. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee opinion number 313, September 2005. The importance of preconception care in the continuum of women’s health care. Obstet Gynecol. 2005b;106(3):665–6. Scholar
  6. American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2000a;23(Suppl 1):S77–9. Scholar
  7. American Diabetes Association. Implications of the United Kingdom prospective diabetes study. Diabetes Care. 2000b;23(Suppl 1):S27–31. Scholar
  8. American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(Suppl 1):S88–90. Scholar
  9. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(1):S4–S36. Scholar
  10. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl. 1):S11–61. Scholar
  11. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2012. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(Suppl. 1):1–94. Scholar
  12. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(Suppl 1):S11–66. Scholar
  13. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2015. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(January):S1–S93. Scholar
  14. Andersen O, Hertel J, Schmølker L, Kühl C. Influence of the maternal plasma glucose concentration at delivery on the risk of hypoglycaemia in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1985;74(2):268–73. Scholar
  15. Anjalakshi C, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Seshiah V. A prospective study comparing insulin and glibenclamide in gestational diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian women. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;76(3):474–5. Scholar
  16. Aroda VR, Christophi CA, Edelstein SL, et al. The effect of lifestyle intervention and metformin on preventing or delaying diabetes among women with and without gestational diabetes: the diabetes prevention program outcomes study 10-year follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(4):1646–53. Scholar
  17. Artal R, Catanzaro RB, Gavard JA, Mostello DJ, Friganza JC. A lifestyle intervention of weight-gain restriction: diet and exercise in obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32(3):596–601. Scholar
  18. Avery MD, Walker AJ. Acute effect of exercise on blood glucose and insulin levels in women with gestational diabetes. J Matern Fetal Med. 2001;10(1):52–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Balsells M, Corcoy R, Adelantado JM, Garcia-Patterson A, Altirriba O, de Leiva A. Gestational diabetes mellitus: metabolic control during labour. Diab Nutr Metab. 2000;13(5):257–62.Google Scholar
  20. Balsells M, García-Patterson A, Solà I, Roqué M, Gich I, Corcoy R. Glibenclamide, metformin, and insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;350(jan21_14):h102. Scholar
  21. Bao W, Tobias K, Bowers K, et al. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7):1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O. The postprandial glucose profile in the diabetic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191(2):576–81. Scholar
  23. Beydoun HA, Beydoun MA, Tamim H. How does gestational diabetes affect postpartum contraception in nondiabetic primiparous women? Contraception. 2009;79(4):290–6. Scholar
  24. Bhattacharyya A, Brown S, Hughes S, Vice PA. Insulin lispro and regular insulin in pregnancy. QJM. 2001;94(5):255–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Buchanan TA, Kjos SL, Schafer U, et al. Utility of fetal measurements in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:B99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Callesen NF, Damm J, Mathiesen JM, Ringholm L, Damm P, Mathiesen ER. Treatment with the long-acting insulin analogues detemir or glargine during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes: comparison of glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome. J Matern Neonatal Fetal Med. 2013;26(6):588–92. Scholar
  27. Camelo Castillo W, Boggess K, Stürmer T, Brookhart MA, Benjamin DK, Jonsson Funk M. Association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with glyburide vs insulin in women with gestational diabetes. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(5):452–8. Scholar
  28. Carlsen SM, Martinussen MP, Metformin’s VE. Effect on first-year weight gain: a follow-up study. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e1222–6. Scholar
  29. Carpenter MW, Coustan DR. Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;144:768–73. 0002-9378(82)90349-0 [pii]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carrapato MR, Marcelino F. The infant of the diabetic mother: the critical developmental windows. Early Pregnancy. 2001;5(1):57–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Carron-Brown S, Kyne-Grzebalski D, Mwangi B, et al. Effect of management policy upon 120 type 1 diabetic pregnancies: policy decisions in practice. Diabet Med. 1999;16(7):573–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Catalano PM, Mele L, Landon MB, et al. Inadequate weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women: what is the effect on fetal growth? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;211(2). Scholar
  33. Charles B, Norris R, Xiao X, Hague W. Population pharmacokinetics of metformin in late pregnancy. Ther Drug Monit. 2006;28(1):67–72. 00007691-200602000-00015 [pii]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chatfield J. ACOG issues guidelines on fetal macrosomia. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Am Fam Physician. 2001;64(1):169–70. Scholar
  35. Chen R, Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring for the evaluation and improved control of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003;14(4):256–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cheng YW, Chung JH, Block-Kurbisch I, Inturrisi M, Caughey AB. Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus: glyburide compared to subcutaneous insulin therapy and associated perinatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(4):379–84. Scholar
  37. Chitayat L, Jovanovic L, Hod M. New modalities in the treatment of pregnancies complicated by diabetes: drugs and devices. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;14(2):72–6. Scholar
  38. Chmait R, Dinise T, Moore T. Prospective observational study to establish predictors of glyburide success in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Perinatol. 2004;24(10):617–22. Scholar
  39. Coetzee EJ, Jackson WP. Oral hypoglycaemics in the first trimester and fetal outcome. S Afr Med J. 1984;65(16):635–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Conway DL. Choosing route of delivery for the macrosomic infant of a diabetic mother: cesarean section versus vaginal delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12(6):442–8. Scholar
  41. Conway DL, Langer O. Elective delivery of infants with macrosomia in diabetic women: reduced shoulder dystocia versus increased cesarean deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178(5):922–5. Scholar
  42. Conway DL, Gonzales O, Skiver D. Use of glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes: the San Antonio experience. J Matern Neonatal Fetal Med. 2004;15(1):51–5. Scholar
  43. Cox M, Whittle MJ, Byrne A, Kingdom JC, Ryan G. Prepregnancy counselling: experience from 1,075 cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99(11):873–6. Scholar
  44. Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(24):2477–86. Scholar
  45. Curet LB, Izquierdo LA, Gilson GJ, Schneider JM, Perelman R, Converse J. Relative effects of antepartum and intrapartum maternal blood glucose levels on incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia. J Perinatol. 1997;17(2):113–5.
  46. De Luca AKC, Nakazawa CY, Azevedo BC, Rudge MVC, De Araújo Costa RA, Calderon IMP. Influence of glycemic control on fetal lung maturity in gestations affected by diabetes or mild hyperglycemia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(9):1036–40. Scholar
  47. Denno KM, Sadler TW. Effects of the biguanide class of oral hypoglycemic agents on mouse embryogenesis. Teratology. 1994;49(4):260–6. Scholar
  48. Di Cianni G, Torlone E, Lencioni C, et al. Perinatal outcomes associated with the use of glargine during pregnancy. Diabet Med. 2008;25(8):993–6. Scholar
  49. Diamond T, Kormas N. Possible adverse fetal effect of insulin lispro. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(14):1009.; author reply 1010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ecker JL, Greenberg JA, Norwitz ER, Nadel AS, Repke JT. Birth weight as a predictor of brachial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(5 Pt 1):643–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Edson EJ, Bracco OL, Vambergue A, Koivisto V. Managing diabetes during pregnancy with insulin lispro: a safe alternative to human insulin. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(6):1020–7. Scholar
  52. Elliott BD, Langer O, Schenker S, Johnson RF. Insignificant transfer of glyburide occurs across the human placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165(4 PART 1):807–12. Scholar
  53. Elliott BD, Schenker S, Langer O, Johnson R, Prihoda T. Comparative placental transport of oral hypoglycemic agents in humans: a model of human placental drug transfer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171(3):653–60. Scholar
  54. Eyal S, Easterling TR, Carr D, et al. Pharmacokinetics of metformin during pregnancy. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38(5):833–40. Scholar
  55. Fallis A. Williams textbook of endocrinology; 2016. 13th Edition. Shlomo Melmed Kenneth Polonsky P. Reed Larsen Henry Kronenberg Eldevier, Philadelphia.
  56. Farquhar JW, Isles TE. Hypoglycemia in newborn infants of normal and diabetic mothers. S Afr Med J. 1968;42(10):237–45. Scholar
  57. Feldberg D, Dicker D, Samuel N, Peleg D, Karp M, Goldman JA. Intrapartum management of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) gestants. A comparative study of constant intravenous insulin infusion and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump (CSIIP). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1988;67(4):333–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Force USPST. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:759–65. [Summary for patients in Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(10):I60; PMID: 18490671]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Foyett JP. Management of obesity. Prim Care Rep. 2000;6:19.Google Scholar
  60. Freinkel N. Banting lecture 1980. Of pregnancy and progeny. Diabetes. 1980;29(12):1023–35. Scholar
  61. Frey KA. Preconception care by the nonobstetrical provider. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(5):469–73. Scholar
  62. Gilbert C, Valois M, Koren G. Pregnancy outcome after first-trimester exposure to metformin: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(3):658–63. Scholar
  63. Glueck CJ, Wang P. Metformin before and during pregnancy and lactation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2007;6(2):191–8. Scholar
  64. González-Romero S, González-Molero I, Fernández-Abellán M, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(4):263–9. Scholar
  65. Group HSCR, Metzger BE, Lowe LP, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(19):1991–2002. Scholar
  66. Group WGD. Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy. World Health Org. 2013:1–63.
  67. Guariguata L, Linnenkamp U, Beagley J, Whiting DR, Cho NH. Global estimates of the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(2):176–85. Scholar
  68. Gunderson EP. Gestational diabetes and nutritional recommendations. Curr Diab Rep. 2004;4(5):377–86. Scholar
  69. Gunderson EP. Breastfeeding after gestational diabetes pregnancy: subsequent obesity and type 2 diabetes in women and their offspring. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(Suppl. 2). Scholar
  70. Hod M, Yogev Y. Diabetes in pregnancy. In: Oxford textbook of medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010. p. 2133–9. Scholar
  71. Hod M, Damm P, Kaaja R, et al. Fetal and perinatal outcomes in type 1 diabetes pregnancy: a randomized study comparing insulin aspart with human insulin in 322 subjects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(2):186 e1–7. S0002-9378(07)00971-4 [pii]\rCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hod M, Mathiesen ER, Jovanovic L, et al. A randomized trial comparing perinatal outcomes using insulin detemir or neutral protamine Hagedorn in type 1 diabetes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27(1):7–13. Scholar
  73. Hod M, Kapur A, Sacks DA, et al. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative on gestational diabetes mellitus: a pragmatic guide for diagnosis, management, and care. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2015;131:S173–211. Scholar
  74. Hunt KJ, Schuller KL. The increasing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 2007;34(2):173–99., vii. Scholar
  75. Ijäs H, Vääräsmäki M, Morin-Papunen L, et al. Metformin should be considered in the treatment of gestational diabetes: a prospective randomised study. BJOG. 2011;118(7):880–5. Scholar
  76. ACOG technical bulletin. Diabetes and pregnancy. Number 200 – December 1994 (replaces No. 92, May 1986). Committee on Technical Bulletins of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1995;48(3):331–9.
  77. International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IDF diabetes atlas. 7th ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2015. Scholar
  78. Jack BW. Preconception care. JAMA. 1990;264(9):1147. Scholar
  79. Jacobson GF, Ramos GA, Ching JY, Kirby RS, Ferrara A, Field DR. Comparison of glyburide and insulin for the management of gestational diabetes in a large managed care organization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(1):118–24. Scholar
  80. Järvelä IY, Juutinen J, Koskela P, et al. Gestational diabetes identifies women at risk for permanent type 1 and type 2 diabetes in fertile age: predictive role of autoantibodies. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):607–12. Scholar
  81. Jensen DM, Damm P, Sørensen B, et al. Clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy: a study of 2904 nondiabetic Danish women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(2):413–9. Scholar
  82. Jiwani A, Marseille E, Lohse N, Damm P, Hod M, Kahn JG. Gestational diabetes mellitus: results from a survey of country prevalence and practices. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(May 2011):600–10. Scholar
  83. Johns K, Olynik C, Mase R, Kreisman S, Tildesley H. Gestational diabetes mellitus outcome in 394 patients. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006;28(2):122–7. Scholar
  84. Johnson K, Posner SF, Biermann J, et al. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care – United States. A report of the CDC/ATSDR preconception care work group and the select panel on preconception care. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-6):1–23. Scholar
  85. Jones CW. Gestational diabetes and its impact on the neonate. Neonatal Netw. 2001;20(6):17–23. Scholar
  86. Jovanovic L. American diabetes association’s fourth international workshop-conference on gestational diabetes mellitus: summary and discussion therapeutic interventions. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:B131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jovanovic L, Druzin M, Peterson CM. Effect of euglycemia on the outcome of pregnancy in insulin-dependent diabetic women as compared with normal control subjects. Am J Med. 1981;71(6):921–7. Scholar
  88. Jovanovic L, Metzger BE, Knopp RH, et al. The diabetes in early pregnancy study: (beta)-Hydroxybutyrate levels in type 1 diabetic pregnancy compared with normal pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(11):1978–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kahn BF, Davies JK, Lynch AM, Reynolds RM, L a B. Predictors of glyburide failure in the treatment of gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(6):1303–9. Scholar
  90. Kampmann U, Madsen LR, Skajaa GO, Iversen DS, Moeller N, Ovesen P. Gestational diabetes: a clinical update. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(8):1065–72. Scholar
  91. Kapur A. Pregnancy: a window of opportunity for improving current and future health. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(Suppl):S50–1. Scholar
  92. Kemball ML, McIver C, Milner RD, Nourse CH, Schiff D, Tiernan JR. Neonatal hypoglycaemia in infants of diabetic mothers given sulphonylurea drugs in pregnancy. Arch Dis Child. 1970;45(243):696–701. Scholar
  93. Kerssen A, Valk HW, Visser GHA. Day-to-day glucose variability during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: glucose profiles measured with the continuous glucose monitoring system. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;111(9):919–24. Scholar
  94. Kim C, Newton KM, Knopp RH. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(10):1862–8. Scholar
  95. Kim C, Ferrara A, McEwen LN, Marrero DG, Gerzoff RB, Herman WH. Preconception care in managed care: the translating research into action for diabetes study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(1):227–32. Scholar
  96. Kitzmiller JL, Cloherty JP, Younger MD, et al. Diabetic pregnancy and perinatal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978;131(5):560–80. Scholar
  97. Knopp RH, Magee MS, Raisys V, Benedetti T. Metabolic effects of hypocaloric diets in management of gestational diabetes. Diabetes. 1991;40(Suppl. 2):165–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kraemer J, Klein J, Lubetsky A, Koren G. Perfusion studies of glyburide transfer across the human placenta: implications for fetal safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195(1):270–4. Scholar
  99. Kremer CJ, Duff P. Glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(5):1438–9. Scholar
  100. Kulkarni K, Castle G, Gregory R, et al. Nutrition practice guidelines for type 1 diabetes mellitus positively affect dietitian practices and patient outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98(1):62–70. Scholar
  101. Lain KY, Garabedian MJ, Daftary A, Jeyabalan A. Neonatal adiposity following maternal treatment of gestational diabetes with glyburide compared with insulin. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(5). Scholar
  102. Landon MB, Gabbe SG. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(6):1379–93. Scholar
  103. Landon MB, Gabbe SG, Piana R, Mennuti MT, Main EK. Neonatal morbidity in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus: predictive value of maternal glycemic profiles. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;156(5):1089–95. Scholar
  104. Landon MB, Spong CY, Thom E, et al. A multicenter, randomized trial of treatment for mild gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(14):1339–48. Scholar
  105. Langer O. Prevention of macrosomia. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1991;5(2):333–47. Scholar
  106. Langer O, Mazze R. The relationship between large-for-gestational-age infants and glycemic control in women with gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;159(6):1478–83. Scholar
  107. Langer O, Anyaegbunam A, Brustman L, Guidetti D, Levy J, Mazze R. Pregestational diabetes: insulin requirements throughout pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;159(3):616–21. Scholar
  108. Langer O, Levy J, Brustman L, Anyaegbunam A, Merkatz R, Divon M. Glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus-how tight is tight enough: small for gestational age versus large for gestational age? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161(3):646–53. Scholar
  109. Langer O, Berkus MD, Huff RW, Samueloff A. Shoulder dystocia: Should the fetus weighing ≥4000 grams be delivered by cesarean section? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165(4 PART 1):831–7. Scholar
  110. Langer O, Rodriguez DA, Xenakis EM, McFarland MB, Berkus MD, Arrendondo F. Intensified versus conventional management of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170(4):1036–46; discussion 1046–47. Scholar
  111. Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, Xenakis EM, Gonzales O. A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(16):1134–8. Scholar
  112. Lean ME, Pearson DW, Sutherland HW. Insulin management during labour and delivery in mothers with diabetes. Diabet Med. 1990;7:162–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lepercq J, Lin J, Hall GC, et al. Meta-analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with the use of insulin glargine versus NPH insulin during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2012;2012:649070. Scholar
  114. Letter NM. Oral hypoglycaemic therapy in diabetic pregnancies. Lancet Lond Engl. 1974;2(7885):902–3. Scholar
  115. Levy AL, Gonzalez JL, Rappaport VJ, Curet LB, Rayburn WF. Effect of labor induction on cesarean section rates in diabetic pregnancies. J Reprod Med. 2002;47(11):931–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Li G, Zhao S, Cui S, Li L, Xu Y, Li Y. Effect comparison of metformin with insulin treatment for gestational diabetes: a meta-analysis based on RCTs. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292(1):111–20. Scholar
  117. Linder N, Lahat Y, Kogan A, et al. Macrosomic newborns of non-diabetic mothers: anthropometric measurements and neonatal complications. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014:353–8. Scholar
  118. Lv SS, Wang JY, Xu Y. Safety of insulin analogs during pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292(4):749–56. Scholar
  119. Magee MS, Knopp RH, Benedetti TJ. Metabolic effects of 1200-kcal diet in obese pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Diabetes. 1990;39(2):234–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Masson EA, Patmore JE, Brash PD, et al. Pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin lispro (Humalog). Diabet Med. 2003;20(1):46–50. Scholar
  121. Mathiesen ER, Kinsley B, Amiel SA, et al. Maternal glycemic control and hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: a randomized trial of insulin aspart versus human insulin in 322 pregnant women. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):771–6. Scholar
  122. Mathiesen E, Hod M, Ivanisevic M, et al. Maternal efficacy and safety outcomes in a randomized, controlled trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin in 310 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(10):2012–7. Scholar
  123. Mayer-Davis EJ, Rifas-Shiman SL, Zhou L, Hu FB, Colditz GA, Gillman MW. Breast-feeding and risk for childhood obesity: does maternal diabetes or obesity status matter? Diabetes Care. 2006;29(10):2231–7. Scholar
  124. Mazze R, Yogev Y, Langer O. Measuring glucose exposure and variability using continuous glucose monitoring in normal and abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(7):1171–5. Scholar
  125. McCance DR, Damm P, Mathiesen ER, et al. Evaluation of insulin antibodies and placental transfer of insulin aspart in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2008;51(11):2141–3. Scholar
  126. McIntyre HD, Metzger BE, Coustan DR, et al. Counterpoint: establishing consensus in the diagnosis of GDM following the HAPO study. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(6).
  127. McIntyre HD, Colagiuri S, Roglic G, Hod M. Diagnosis of GDM: a suggested consensus. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;29(2):194–205. Scholar
  128. Mecacci F, Carignani L, Cioni R, et al. Maternal metabolic control and perinatal outcome in women with gestational diabetes treated with regular or lispro insulin: comparison with non-diabetic pregnant women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;111(1):19–24. Scholar
  129. Metzger BE. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(3):676–82. Scholar
  130. Metzger B, Buchanan T, Coustan D, et al. Summary and recommendations of the fifth international workshop-conference on gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):S251–60. Scholar
  131. Mills JL, Simpson JL, Driscoll SG, et al. Incidence of spontaneous abortion among normal women and insulin-dependent diabetic women whose pregnancies were identified within 21 days of conception. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(25):1617–23. Scholar
  132. Mimouni F, Miodovnik M, Siddiqi TA, Khoury J, Tsang RC. Perinatal asphyxia in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers. J Pediatr. 1988;113(2):345–53. Scholar
  133. Miodovnik M, Mimouni F, Tsang RC, et al. Management of the insulin-dependent diabetic during labor and delivery. Influences on neonatal outcome. Am J Perinatol. 1987;4(2):106–14. Scholar
  134. Moore LE, Clokey D, Rappaport VJ, Curet LB. Metformin compared with glyburide in gestational diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(1):55–9. Scholar
  135. Moos M. Preconceptional wellness as a routine objective for women’s health care: an integrative strategy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003;32(4):550–6. Scholar
  136. Moos M-K. From concept to practice: reflections on the preconception health agenda. J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(3):561–7. Scholar
  137. Moses RG, Cheung NW. Point: universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1349–51. Scholar
  138. Mukhopadhyay P, Bag TS, Kyal A, Saha DP, Khalid N. Oral hypoglycemic glibenclamide: can it be a substitute to insulin in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus? A comparative study. J SAFOG. 2012;4(1):28–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Nanovskaya TN, Patrikeeva S, Hemauer S, et al. Effect of albumin on transplacental transfer and distribution of rosiglitazone and glyburide. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21(3):197–207. Scholar
  140. National Diabetes Data Group. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes. 1979;28(December):1039–57. Scholar
  141. Naylor CD, Sermer M, Chen E, Farine D. Selective screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Toronto Trihospital Gestational Diabetes Project Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(22):1591–6. Scholar
  142. NHS. Diabetes in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972;2008(July):61–6. Scholar
  143. Nielsen KK, de Courten M, Kapur A. The urgent need for universally applicable simple screening procedures and diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus – lessons from projects funded by the World Diabetes Foundation. Glob Health Action. 2012;1(5):17277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Nielsen KK, Kapur A, Damm P, de Courten M, Bygbjerg IC. From screening to postpartum follow-up – the determinants and barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) services, a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:41. Scholar
  145. O’Reilly M, Avalos G, Dennedy MC, O’Sullivan EP, Dunne FP. Breast-feeding is associated with reduced postpartum maternal glucose intolerance after gestational diabetes. Ir Med J. 2012;105(5 Suppl):31–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. O’Sullivan JB, Mahan CM, Charles D, Dandrow RV. Screening criteria for high risk gestational diabetic patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;116(7):895–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Offspring T, Tofu FM. Metformin in gestational diabetes. Heal. 2011;34. Scholar
  148. Ogunyemi D, Jesse M, Davidson M. Comparison of glyburide versus insulin in management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2007;13(4):427–8. Scholar
  149. Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Smith GD, Cook DG. Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(5):1043–54. 84/5/1043 [pii]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pedersen J. Weight and length at birth of infants of diabetic mothers. Eur J Endocrinol. 1954;16(4):330–42. Scholar
  151. Pedersen J, Pedersen LM, Andersen B. Assessors of fetal perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. Analysis of 1,332 pregnancies in the Copenhagen series, 1946–1972. Diabetes. 1974;23(4):302–5. Scholar
  152. Persson B, Swahn M-L, Hjertberg R, et al. Insulin lispro therapy in pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;58(2):115–21. Scholar
  153. Pertot T, Molyneaux L, Tan K, Ross GP, Yue DK, Wong J. Can common clinical parameters be used to identify patients who will need insulin treatment in gestational diabetes mellitus? Diabetes Care. 2011;34(10):2214–6. Scholar
  154. Pettitt DJ, Ospina P, Kolaczynski JW, Jovanovic L. Comparison of an insulin analog, insulin aspart, and regular human insulin with no insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):183–6. Scholar
  155. Pettitt DJ, Ospina P, Howard C, Zisser H, Jovanovic L. Efficacy, safety and lack of immunogenicity of insulin aspart compared with regular human insulin for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2007;24(10):1129–35. Scholar
  156. Piacquadio K, Hollingsworth DR, Murphy H. Effects of in-utero exposure to oral hypoglycaemic drugs. Lancet. 1991;338(8771):866–9. Scholar
  157. Plagemann A, Harder T, Franke K, Kohlhoff R. Long-term impact of neonatal breast-feeding on body weight and glucose tolerance in children of diabetic mothers. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(1):16–22. Scholar
  158. Pollex EK, Feig DS, Lubetsky A, Yip PM, Koren G. Insulin glargine safety in pregnancy: a transplacental transfer study. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):29–33. Scholar
  159. Pollex E, Moretti ME, Koren G, Feig DS. Safety of insulin glargine use in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45(1):9–16. Scholar
  160. Rae A, Bond D, Evans S, North F, Roberman B, Walters B. A randomised controlled trial of dietary energy restriction in the management of obese women with gestational diabetes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;40(4):416–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Ratner RE, Christophi CA, Metzger BE, et al. Prevention of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes: effects of metformin and lifestyle interventions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4774–9. Scholar
  162. Reece EA. The fetal and maternal consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23(3):199–203. Scholar
  163. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and child intelligence. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(13):911–6. Scholar
  164. Rø TB, Ludvigsen HV, Carlsen SM, Vanky E. Growth, body composition and metabolic profile of 8-year-old children exposed to metformin in utero. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2012;72(7):570–5. Scholar
  165. Rochon M, Rand L, Roth L, Gaddipati S. Glyburide for the management of gestational diabetes: risk factors predictive of failure and associated pregnancy outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195(4):1090–4. Scholar
  166. Rouse DJ, Owen J. Prophylactic cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by means of ultrasonography – a Faustian bargain? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;181:332–8. Scholar
  167. Rowan JA, Hague WM, Gao W, et al. Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(19):2003–15. Scholar
  168. Russo LM, Nobles C, Ertel KA, Chasan-Taber L, Whitcomb BW. Physical activity interventions in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125(3):576–82. Scholar
  169. Sacks DB. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: it is time for international consensus. Clin Chem. 2014;60(1):141–3. Scholar
  170. Sacks DA, Greenspoon JS, Abu-Fadil S, Henry HM, Wolde-Tsadik G, Yao JFF. Toward universal criteria for gestational diabetes: the 75-gram glucose tolerance test in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172(2 PART 1):607–14. Scholar
  171. Salvesen DR, Freeman J, Brudenell JM, Nicolaides KH. Prediction of fetal acidaemia in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus by biophysical profile scoring and fetal heart rate monitoring. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1993;100(3):227–33. Scholar
  172. Scherbaum WA, Lankisch MR, Pawlowski B, Somville T. Insulin Lispro in pregnancy – retrospective analysis of 33 cases and matched controls. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2002;110(1):6–9. Scholar
  173. Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Reichelt AJ, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(7):1151–5. Scholar
  174. Sermer M, Naylor CD, Gare DJ, et al. Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes. The Toronto tri-hospital gestational diabetes project. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173:146–56. Scholar
  175. Silva JC, Pacheco C, Bizato J, De Souza BV, Ribeiro TE, Bertini AM. Metformin compared with glyburide for the management of gestational diabetes. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2010;111(1):37–40. Scholar
  176. Silva JC, Fachin DRRN, Coral ML, Bertini AM. Perinatal impact of the use of metformin and glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Perinat Med. 2012;40(3):225–8. Scholar
  177. Simmons D, Moses RG. Gestational diabetes mellitus: to screen or not to screen?: is this really still a question? Diabetes Care. 2013;36(10):2877–8. Scholar
  178. Skouby SO, Mølsted-Pedersen L, Petersen KR. 13 Contraception for women with diabetes: an update. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1991;5(2):493–503. Scholar
  179. Smoak IW, Sadler TW. Embryopathic effects of short-term exposure to hypoglycemia in mouse embryos in vitro. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163(2):619–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Snyder J, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG. Predictors of infant birth weight in gestational diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(6):1409–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Sutherland HW, Stowers JM, Cormack JD, et al. Evaluation of chlorpropamide in chemical diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy. Br Med J. 1973;3(5870):9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Sutherland HW, Bewsher PD, Cormack JD. Effect of moderate dosage of chlorpropamide in pregnancy on fetal outcome. Arch Dis Child. 1974;49(4):283–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tempe A, Mayanglambam RD. Glyburide as treatment option for gestational diabetes mellitus. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39(6):1147–52. Scholar
  184. Tertti K, Ekblad U, Vahlberg T, Rönnemaa T. Comparison of metformin and insulin in the treatment of gestational diabetes: a retrospective, case-control study. Rev Diabet Stud. 2008;5(2):95–101. Scholar
  185. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Weight gain during pregnancy, Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(2 Pt 1):406–16 vol. 548.
  186. Towner D, Kjos SL, Leung B, et al. Congenital malformations in pregnancies complicated by NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(11):1446–51. Scholar
  187. Walker JD. NICE guidance on diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. NICE clinical guideline 63. London, March 2008. Diabet Med. 2008;25(9):1025–7. Scholar
  188. Weintrob N, Karp M, Moshe H. Short- and long-range complications in offspring of diabetic mothers. J Diabetes Complicat. 1996;10(5):294–301. Scholar
  189. Weiss PAM. Gestational diabetes: a survey and the graz approach to diagnosis and therapy. In: Gestational diabetes. Vienna: Springer; 1988. p. 1–55. Scholar
  190. Wyatt JW, Frias JL, Hoyme HE, et al. Congenital anomaly rate in offspring of mothers with diabetes treated with insulin lispro during pregnancy. Diabet Med. 2005;22(6):803–7. Scholar
  191. Xu H, Simonet F, Luo Z-C. Optimal birth weight percentile cut-offs in defining small- or large-for-gestational-age. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(4):550–5. Scholar
  192. Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O. Diurnal glycemic profile in obese and normal weight nondiabetic pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004a;191:949–53. Scholar
  193. Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O. Undiagnosed asymptomatic hypoglycemia: diet, insulin, and glyburide for gestational diabetic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004b;104(1):88–93. Scholar
  194. Yogev Y, Melamed N, Chen R, Nassie D, Pardo J, Hod M. Glyburide in gestational diabetes – prediction of treatment failure. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24(6):842–6. Scholar
  195. Zhuo Z, Wang A, Yu H. Effect of metformin intervention during pregnancy on the gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diab Res. 2014;2014:381231. Scholar
  196. Zucker P, Simon G. Prolonged symptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia associated with maternal chlorpropamide therapy. Pediatrics. 1968;42(5):824–5. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riki Bergel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eran Hadar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yoel Toledano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Moshe Hod
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Helen Schneider’s Hospital for WomenRabin Medical CenterPetah-TikvaIsrael
  2. 2.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations