Storage of Hydrophobic Polymers in Bacteria
The accumulation of storage reserves is broadly spread in nature, and among the different compounds stored, carbohydrates and lipids are the most common and important. The accumulation of storage compounds in inclusion bodies is a strategy that allows the survival of microorganisms in different environments since most of these compounds act as element and/or energy sources. A variety of storage reserves is known and among lipids, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and wax esters (WEs) are the most important. These carbon-based internal reserves gained importance in the last years due to the possibility of using them as substitutes of materials and fuels usually obtained from mineral oil. For this reason, the knowledge about the microorganisms that store them, the metabolic routes involved on their formation, and the process conditions that allow their efficient production were subject of many scientific works and constitute the main topic of the present chapter.
This work was financed by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through IF/01054/2014. This work was also developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007679 (FCT Ref. UID/CTM/50011/2013), financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. This work was also supported by the Associate Laboratory for Green Chemistry- LAQV which is financed by national funds from FCT/MCTES (UID/QUI/50006/2013) and co-financed by the ERDF under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER – 007265).
- Albuquerque MGE, Martino V, Pollet E, Avérous L, Reis MAM (2011) Mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from volatile fatty acid (VFA)-rich streams: Effect of substrate composition and feeding regime on PHA productivity, composition and properties. J Biotech 151:66–76Google Scholar
- Alvarez HM, Silva RA, Herrero M, Hernández MA, Villalba MS (2012) Metabolism of triacylglycerols in Rhodococcus species: insights from physiology and molecular genetics. J Mol Biochem 2:69–78Google Scholar
- Bacon J, Dover LG, Hatch KA, Zhang Y, Gomes JM, Kendall S, Wernisch L, Stoker NG, Butcher PD, Besra GS, Marsh PD (2007) Lipid composition and transcriptional response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown under iron-limitation in continuous culture: identification of a novel wax ester. Microbiology 153:1435–1444CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Berlanga M, Miñana-Galbis D, Domènech O, Guerrero R (2015) Enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Halomonas spp. in artificial biofilms of alginate beads. Int Microbiol 15:191–199Google Scholar
- Brigham CJ, Kurosawa K, Rha C, Sinskey AJ (2013) Bacterial carbon storage to value added products. J Microbial Biochem Technol S3:002:2–13Google Scholar
- Holdren JP (2011) Materials genome initiative for global competitiveness. National Science and Technology Council OSTP, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Kalscheuer R, Stöveken T, Malkus U, Reichelt R, Golyshin PN, Sabirova JS, Ferrer M, Timmis KN, Steinbüchel A (2007) Analysis of storage lipid accumulation in Alcanivorax borkumensis: evidence for alternative triacylglycerol biosynthesis routes in bacteria. J Bacteriol 189:918–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- López NI, Pettinari MJ, Nikel PI, Méndez BS (2015) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: much more than biodegradable plastics. Adv Appl Biotechnol 93:73–106Google Scholar
- Majone M, Massanisso P, Carucci A, Lindrea K, Tandoi V (1996) Influence of storage on kinetic selection to control aerobic filamentous bulking. Water Sci Technol 34(223–2):32Google Scholar
- Serafim LS, Queirós D, Rossetti S, Lemos PC (2016) Biopolymer production by mixed-microbial cultures: integrating remediation with valorization. In: Koller M (ed) Recent advances in biotechnology – volume 1 – microbial polyester production, performance and processing – microbiology, feedstocks, and metabolism, 1st edn. Bentham Science Publishers, Sharjah, pp 226–264Google Scholar
- Shively JM, Cannon GC, Heinhorst S, Bryant DA, DasSarma S, Bazylinski D, Preiss J, Steinbüchel A, Docampo R, Dahl C (2011) Bacterial and archaeal inclusions. In: eLS. Wiley, Chichester, pp 1–14Google Scholar
- Steinbüchel A, Pieper U (1992) Production of a copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyvaleric acid from single unrelated carbon sources by a mutant of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37:1–6Google Scholar
- Volova TG (2004) Polyhydroxyalkanoates – plastic materials of the 21st century: production, properties, applications. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar