Dyeing of Electrospun Nanofibers

  • Muzamil Khatri
  • Umair Ahmed Qureshi
  • Farooq Ahmed
  • Zeeshan KhatriEmail author
  • Ick Soo KimEmail author
Living reference work entry


Dyeing and colorimetric properties on different types of nanofibers is promising for potential apparel applications. Apart from the functional properties electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers, cellulose nanofibers, Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6 nanofibers, Polyester nanofibers, and polyurethane nanofibers are being widely studied recently for dyeing with different dyes and techniques. In general, the polymers solution prepared and converted into nanofibers using electrospinning. The prepared nanofibers are continued to obtain a web thickness varied between 10 um and 100 um, depending on the type of polymer being electrospun. The nanofiber web is then dyed with specific dyes by either batch wise or padding method. We also report using ultrasonic energy in dyeing process to enhance color strength (K/S) values and efficiency of process. This chapter covers range of nanofibers that can be dyed with different dyes and techniques with achieving enough color strength, color fastness values with unaltered morphology, and chemistry of nanofibers. The dyed electrospun nanofibers can potentially be considered for advanced apparel applications.


Nanofibers Dyeing Dyes K/S Color Apparel Textile Electrospinning 


  1. 1.
    Khatri Z, Mayakrishnan G, Hirata Y, Wei K, Kim IS (2013) Cationic-cellulose nanofibers: preparation and dyeability with anionic reactive dyes for apparel application. Carbohydr Polym 91(1):434–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khatri Z, Arain RA, Jatoi AW, Mayakrishnan G, Wei K, Kim IS (2013) Dyeing and characterization of cellulose nanofibers to improve color yields by dual padding method. Cellulose 20(3):1469–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khatri Z, Ahmed F, Jhatial AK, Abro MI, Mayakrishnan G, Kim IS (2014) Cold pad-batch dyeing of cellulose nanofibers with reactive dyes. Cellulose 21(4):3089–3095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khatri M, Ahmed F, Jatoi AW, Mahar RB, Khatri Z, Kim IS (2016) Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers. Ultrason Sonochem 31:350–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khatri M, Ahmed F, Shaikh I, Phan DN, Khan Q, Khatri Z, …, Kim IS (2017) Dyeing and characterization of regenerated cellulose nanofibers with vat dyes. Carbohydr Polym 174:443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babar AA, Miao D, Ali N, Zhao J, Wang X, Yu J, Ding B (2018) Breathable and colorful cellulose acetate-based Nanofibrous membranes for directional moisture transport. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10(26):22866–22875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khatri Z, Khatri A, Saleem U, Mayakrishnan G, Kim BS, Wei K, Kim IS (2013) Pad dyeing of cellulose acetate nanofibres with disperse dyes. Color Technol 129(2):159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee KS, Lee BS, Park YH, Park YC, Kim YM, Jeong SH, Kim SD (2005) Dyeing properties of nylon 66 nano fiber with high molecular mass acid dyes. Fibers and Polym 6(1):35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jatoi AW, Ahmed F, Khatri M, Tanwari A, Khatri Z, Lee H, Kim IS (2017) Ultrasonic-assisted dyeing of Nylon-6 nanofibers. Ultrason Sonochem 39:34–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahar FK, Mehdi M, Qureshi UA, Brohi KM, Zahid B, Ahmed F, Khatri Z (2017) Dyeability of recycled electrospun polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanofibers: kinetics and thermodynamic study. J Mol Liq 248:911–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mehdi M, Mahar FK, Qureshi UA, Khatri M, Khatri Z, Ahmed F, Kim IS (2018) Preparation of colored recycled polyethylene terephthalate nanofibers from waste bottles: physicochemical studies. Adv Polym Technol.
  12. 12.
    Khatri A, Ali S, Jhatial AK, Kim SH (2015) Dyeability of polyurethane nanofibres with disperse dyes. Color Technol 131(5):374–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jatoi AW, Kim IS, Ni QQ (2018) Ultrasonic energy-assisted coloration of polyurethane nanofibers. Appl Nanosci 8(6):1505–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shore J (1995) Cellulosic dyeing. The Society of Dyers and Colourists, BradfordGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shore J (2002) Chemistry of reactive dyes. In: Shore J (ed) Colorants and auxiliaries. Society of Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, pp 356–443Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tissera ND, Wijesena RN, de Silva KN (2016) Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye–fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures. Ultrason Sonochem 29:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bai G, Song XY (2005) Dyeing properties of polyamide super-microfibre with disperse dyes. Color Technol 121(6):329–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER)Shinshu UniversityTokidaJapan
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology and MaterialsMehran University of Engineering and TechnologyJamshoroPakistan

Personalised recommendations