Molecular Basics on Genitourinary Malignancies
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We constantly face diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in the management of genitourinary malignancies. The lack of highly sensitive and specific cancer markers often results in the need of invasive procedures for both diagnostic and surveillance purposes. Understanding the molecular basics of genitourinary malignancies is essential for personalized and precision medicine. Cancers originating from the same organ could have different biological behaviours and responses towards different types of treatment. An individualized treatment based on molecular features could potentially enhance clinical effectiveness while minimizing treatment-related side effects. In this book chapter, we shall summarize the current knowledge regarding the molecular basics of genitourinary malignancies including prostate cancer, urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and upper urinary tract, kidney cancer, penile cancer and testicular cancer. We hope, by the end of the book chapter, we would be able to provide you insights regarding the next step forward.
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