Follow-Up of Bladder Cancer
The follow-up scheme of bladder cancer represents a balance between invasiveness, costs, and the risk of delaying a high-grade non-muscle-invasive/muscle-invasive tumor in the case of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and of early detection of local and/or distant recurrence in muscle-invasive disease (MIBC). All recommendations are largely based on retrospective data analysis; prospective studies to determine, e.g., the frequency of control cystoscopies and imaging are lacking. The follow-up scheme of NMIBC is driven by the risk group and of MIBC regarding the risk for local or distant metastases and of a recurrence in the upper urinary tract. More than 50% of all recurrences being detected are symptomatic; therefore a lifelong follow-up in asymptomatic patients is a matter of debate. Following radical cystectomy, follow-up should also include functional and metabolic aspects. The recommendations presented herein are primarily based on the recent guidelines of European Association of Urology (EAU). The guidelines compliance in daily practice regarding follow-up of bladder cancer remains low.
- AUA. American Urological association. Guidelines. Available from: https://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/bladder-cancer.cfm
- CUA. Canadian Urological Association guidelines. Available from: http://www.cua.org/themes/web/assets/files/guidelines/en/3320.pdf
- EAU. European association of urology. Guidelines. Available from: https://uroweb.org/guideline/non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer/
- NCCN. National comprehensive cancer network guidelines. Available from: https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp
- NICE. National institute for health and care excellence guidelines. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng2/chapter/1-recommendations