Urothelial Carcinoma In Situ and Treatment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Failures
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Despite its superficial growth, urothelial carcinoma in situ is an aggressive disease with high recurrence and progression rates. Macroscopic as well as microscopic diagnosis is challenging.
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective therapy for high-risk bladder cancer. In case of failure no other intravesical therapy has shown convincing results to be used in clinical routine. Radical cystectomy remains from an oncologic point of view the most effective therapy.
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