Abdominal sarcoidosis; Gastrointestinal manifestations of sarcoidosis; Granulomatous gastroenteritis
Sarcoidosis is a noncaseating granulomatous disease, likely of autoimmune etiology, that causes inflammation and tissue damage in multiple organs, most commonly the lung, but also skin, and lymph nodes, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The infiltration of CD4 + −activated T-cells represents the immunological hallmark of sarcoidosis. If persistent, this inflammatory process is followed by the formation of granulomas. The accumulated inflammatory cells and granulomas result in distortion of the architecture of the affected tissue and, ultimately, organ dysfunction. Constitutional symptoms include weight loss, myalgias, night sweats, and fever and are most frequent early in the disease. A common acute presentation is erythema nodosum with arthralgias and hilar adenopathy (Lofgren’s syndrome). Over 90% of patients have lung involvement. The...
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