Duodenal ulcer; Gastric ulcer; Gastroduodenal ulcers; Peptic erosions; Peptic ulcer disease
Peptic ulcers are the most common form of gastroduodenal ulcerations caused by the combined effect of acid and gastric pepsin. They are clinically defined as a mucosal break equal to or greater than 5 mm that extend through the muscularis mucosa, in the stomach or duodenum, organs that are normally exposed to acidic environment. As many as 70–80% of the cases of peptic ulcers are associated with Helicobacter pylorigastric infection, and 20–30% associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with 10% being idiopathic. Peptic ulcers are most commonly caused by a decrease in mucosal defense mechanisms that can be related to Helicobacter infection and/or NSAIDs use, allowing the action of acid and pepsin on an unprotected gastroduodenal mucosa. Uncommonly, they are associated with hypersecretory states like gastrinomas (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)....
References and Further Reading
- Cryer, B., & Spechler, S. J. (2010). Peptic ulcer disease. In M. Feldman, L. S. Friedman, & L. J. Brandt (Eds.) Sleisenger & Fordtran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier.Google Scholar