Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Mallory Weiss Lacerations, Esophageal

  • Bruno Pereira
  • António Dias Pereira
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40560-5_1652

Synonyms

Gastroesophageal lacerations; Mallory-Weiss tears

Definition

Mallory-Weiss lacerations are mucosal or submucosal longitudinal tears that occur at the gastroesophageal junction or gastric cardia. These lacerations may cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding from submucosal blood vessels (Mallory-Weiss syndrome). They were first described in 15 alcoholic patients with persistent retching and vomiting (Mallory and Weiss 1929).

While the pathogenesis is not completely understood, it appears that any action leading to a sudden rise in intra-abdominal pressure and gastric prolapse or intussusception into the esophagus may cause a Mallory-Weiss laceration. Besides retching and vomiting, other precipitating factors include coughing, straining, convulsions, hiccups, blunt abdominal trauma, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Iatrogenic tears can result from procedures like upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and transesophageal echocardiography. Colonoscopic preparation with polyethylene...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Bharucha, A. E., Gstout, C. J., & Balm, R. K. (1994). Clinical and endoscopic risk factors in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 89, 2147.Google Scholar
  2. Fujisawa, N., Inamori, M., Sekino, Y., et al. (2011). Risk factors for mortality in patients with Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Hepatogastroenterology, 58(106), 417–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Higuchi, N., Akahoshi, K., Sumida, Y., et al. (2006). Endoscopic band ligation therapy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Surgical Endoscopy, 20(9), 1431–1434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kovacs, T. O., & Jensen, D. M. (1997). Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of bleeding Mallory-Weiss tears. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 92, 805.Google Scholar
  5. Mallory, G. K., & Weiss, S. W. (1929). Hemorrhages from lacerations of the cardiac orifice of the stomach due to vomiting. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 178, 506–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sugawa, C., Benishek, D., & Walt, A. J. (1983). Mallory-Weiss syndrome. A study of 224 patients. American Journal of Surgery, 145(1), 30–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Yamaguchi, Y., Yamato, T., Katsumi, N., et al. (2001). Endoscopic hemoclipping for upper GI bleeding due to Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 53(4), 427–430.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, E.P.E.LisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Servico de Gastrenterologia, Hospital Amato Lusitano, ULS de Castelo BrancoCastelo BrancoPortugal