Hiatus Hernia, Acquired, Paraesophageal (Rolling)
Hiatal hernia; Rolling hiatus hernia; Type II hiatus hernia
A hernia is a protrusion of the abdominal cavity beyond its fascial or muscular walls through fascial or muscular openings or defects.
The distal end of the esophagus, which is normally located in the abdominal cavity, is anchored to the diaphragm by the phrenoesophageal membrane, formed by the fused endothoracic and endoabdominal fascia. This elastic membrane inserts circumferentially into the esophageal musculature, very close to the squamocolumnar junction which resides within the diaphragmatic hiatus. However, these attachments are not firm and a limited longitudinal movement of the esophagus may still occur without alteration of the normal anatomy of the diaphragmatic hiatus.
In hiatal hernia, the upper portion of the stomach (rarely, the entire stomach, a segment of the colon, or the spleen) herniates through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thorax.
Depending on the degree of failure of...
References and Further Reading
- Mori, T., Nagao, G., Sugiyama, M. (2012). Paraesophageal hernia repair. Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22850094.
- Preiser, C. M. F, Noffsinger, A., Stemmermann, G. et al. The nonneoplastic stomach. In Gastrointestinal pathology an atlas and text (pp. 135–231). Lippincott.Google Scholar