Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastroesophageal Junction

  • Namrata Setia
  • Gregory Y. Lauwers
Reference work entry


EGJ; Esophagogastric junction; GEJ; Oesophagogastric junction; OGJ


The gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) is the point where the esophageal mucosa interfaces with the gastric mucosa. It has been defined anatomically, physiologically, radiologically, endoscopically, and histologically. Nevertheless, to date, there is no universally accepted definition of the GEJ, even though one is needed in order to diagnose Barrett esophagus appropriately. Physiologically, the GEJ corresponds to the lower esophageal sphincter (area of high pressure). In a healthy individual, it ideally will correspond to the endoscopic GEJ and the microscopic squamocolumnar junction (SCJ).


Anatomically, in resection specimens and autopsy studies, the GEJ is defined as the line between the angles of the opened esophagus and the greater curvature of the stomach. Endoscopically, in most Western countries, the GEJ is defined as “the upper limit of the gastric longitudinal mucosal folds.” In...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Bombeck, C. T., Dillard, D. H., & Nyhus, L. M. (1966). Muscular anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction and role of phrenoesophageal ligament; autopsy study of sphincter mechanism. Annals of Surgery, 164(4), 643–654.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Odze, R. D. (2005). Pathology of the gastroesophageal junction. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, 22(4), 256–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Sharma, P., Dent, J., Armstrong, D., Bergman, J. J., Gossner, L., Hoshihara, Y., et al. (2006). The development and validation of an endoscopic grading system for barrett’s esophagus: The prague C & M criteria. Gastroenterology, 131(5), 1392–1399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Srivastava, A., Odze, R. D., Lauwers, G. Y., Redston, M., Antonioli, D. A., & Glickman, J. N. (2007). Morphologic features are useful in distinguishing barrett esophagus from carditis with intestinal metaplasia. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 31(11), 1733–1741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Takubo, K., Arai, T., Sawabe, M., Miyashita, M., Sasajima, K., Iwakiri, K., et al. (2003). Structures of the normal esophagus and Barrett’s esophagus. Esophagus, 1, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Takubo, K., Aida, J., Sawabe, M., Arai, T., Kato, H., Pech, O., et al. (2008). The normal anatomy around the oesophagogastric junction: A histopathologic view and its correlation with endoscopy. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 22(4), 569–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA