Infectious esophagitis is a relatively uncommon condition as normal esophageal mucosa is remarkably resistant to infection. Invasive esophageal infections can present in association with distinct clinical conditions but occur with few exceptions in immunocompromised patients, specifically those with AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma, and other cancers. Although immunosuppression from any condition or therapy can potentially lead to esophageal infections, the individuals at highest risk for infectious esophagitis are those with HIV infection and low CD4 counts and leukemia or lymphoma (especially during chemotherapy) (Mulhall and Wong 2003).
Some significant risk factors are iatrogenic, with some cases presenting in the context of chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulators, and high-dose corticosteroid administration. There are though important risk factors other than immunosuppression. The prevention of esophageal pathogen adherence is...
References and Further Reading
- Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., & Lantz, P. E. (1999). The Nonneoplastic esophagus. In Gastrointestinal pathology: An atlas and text (2nd ed., pp. 31–91). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
- Trappe, R., Pohl, H., Forberger, A., et al. (2007). Transpl Acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in the renal transplant recipient: Manifestation of primary cytomegalovirus infection. Infectious Diseases, 9(1), 42–45.Google Scholar