Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Neuroendocrine Tumor, Esophagus

  • José Manuel Lopes
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40560-5_1587

Synonyms

Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs); Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NECs); Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs)

Definition

Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the digestive system (Rindi et al. 2010), namely, in the esophagus, include (1) Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) – carcinoids and well-differentiated endocrine tumors/carcinomas; (2) Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) – poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, and small-cell and large-cell endocrine carcinomas; and (3) Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) (Arnold et al. 2010); there are also hyperplastic and preneoplastic neuroendocrine lesions. NETsare well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms comprising cells with similar features to those of the normal gut endocrine cells, expressing markers of neuroendocrine differentiation (e.g., diffuse and intense chromogranin A and synaptophysin) and hormones, with mild-to-moderate nuclear atypia and low mitotic index and/or low...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Arnold, R., Capella, C., Klimstra, D. S., Kloppel, G., Kominoth, P., Solcia, E., & Rindi, G. (2010). Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the esophagus. In F. T. Bosman, F. Carneiro, R. H. Hruban, & N. E. Theise (Eds.), WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system (pp. 32–34). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).Google Scholar
  2. Rindi, G., Kloppel, G., Alhman, H., Caplin, M., Couvelard, A., de Herder, W. W., Erikssson, B., Falchetti, A., Falconi, M., Komminoth, P., Korner, M., Lopes, J. M., McNicol, A. M., Nilsson, O., Perren, A., Scarpa, A., Scoazec, J. Y., Wiedenmann, B., & Frascati Consensus Conference P. (2006). TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: A consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Archiv, 449, 395–401.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Rindi, G., Kloppel, G., Couvelard, A., Kommonoth, P., Korner, M., Lopes, J. M., NcNicol, A. M., Nilsson, O., Perren, A., Scarpa, A., Scoazec, J. Y., & Wiedenmann, B. (2007). TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: A consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Archiv, 451, 757–762.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Rindi, G., Arnold, R., Bosman, F. T., Capella, C., Klimstra, D. S., Kloppel, G., & Solcia, E. (2010). Nomenclature and classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the digestive system. In F. T. Bosman, F. Carneiro, R. H. Hruban, & N. E. Theise (Eds.), WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system (pp. 13–14). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto and Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of PortoPortoPortugal