Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Diverticulum Epiphrenic

  • Bruno Pereira
  • António Dias Pereira
Reference work entry


Lower esophageal diverticulum; Supradiaphragmatic diverticulum


A diverticulum is an outpouching of a hollow organ. Diverticula arising from the esophagus and hypopharynx are usually classified into three types according to anatomical location and pathogenesis. Zenker’s diverticulum (pharyngoesophageal diverticulum) arises from the posterior hypopharynx, just above the upper esophageal sphincter, as a result of increased pressure during swallowing. Middle esophageal diverticula are usually secondary to an inflammatory process in the carinal lymph nodes (e.g., tuberculosis) which exert a traction force over the esophageal wall. Diverticula arising from the distal esophagus, usually within 10 cm of the cardia, are called epiphrenic diverticula.

In terms of pathogenesis, epiphrenic diverticula are generally classified as pulsion diverticula, although there have been reports of cases where a traction form seems to occur. The diverticula are thought to be the result of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Bruggeman, L. L., & Seaman, W. B. (1973). Epiphrenic diverticula. An analysis of 80 cases. The American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine, 119(2), 266–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fasano, N. C., Levine, M. S., Rubsein, S. E., et al. (2003). Epiphrenic diverticulum: Clinical and radiographic findings in 27 patients. Dysphagia, 18, 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hudspeth, D. A., Thorne, M. T., Conroy, R., et al. (1993). Management of epiphrenic esophageal diverticula. A fifteen-year experience. The American Surgeon, 59(1), 40–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kilic, A., Schuchert, M. J., Awais, O., et al. (2009). Surgical management of epiphrenic diverticula in the minimally invasive era. Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, 13(2), 160–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Varghese, T. K., Marshall, B., Chang, A. C., et al. (2007). Surgical treatment of epiphrenic diverticula: A 30-year experience. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 84(6), 1801–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, E.P.E.LisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Servico de GastrenterologiaHospital Amato Lusitano, ULS de Castelo BrancoCastelo BrancoPortugal