Short Gut Syndrome
Small intestinal insufficiency
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) refers to the clinical consequences including malabsorption resulting from loss of small bowel absorptive surface area either due to congenital defect or surgical resection or bypass. The syndrome is characterized by maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. SBS occurs when more than one half of the bowel is removed or missing, especially if terminal ileum and ileocecal valves are removed. After removal of a large portion of the small intestine, the remaining small intestine goes through a process of adaptation that increases its ability to absorb nutrients. The inner lining grows, increasing its absorptive surface area. Intestinal adaptation can take up to 2 years to occur. Clinical symptoms of SBS include diarrhea, fatigue, steatorrhea, weight loss, and edema. The diagnosis rests on the clinical history and routine laboratory tests revealing the deficiency of nutrients.