Vegetables and Fruit

  • Andrea BauerEmail author
  • Wolfgang Uter
  • Christiane Szliska
Living reference work entry


Workers under risk are farmers, gardeners, bakers, pastry cooks, food handlers, cooks, and food processing industry workers.

Skin symptoms in occupational food handling normally appear on the hands but may also develop on the face by direct skin contact or aerogen exposure.

Clinical manifestations appear as irritant/allergic contact dermatitis, phototoxic/photoallergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria (immunologic/non-immunologic), and protein contact dermatitis.


Occupational contact dermatitis Vegetables Fruits Allergy Irritation 


  1. Aberer W (1992) Occupational dermatitis from organically grown parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.). Contact Dermatitis 26(1):62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams RM (1990) Dermatitis in food service workers. Allergy Proc 11(3):123–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso MD, Martin JA, Cuevas M, Parra F, Lezaun A, Condé Salazar L, Guimaraens MD, Losada E (1993) Occupational protein contact dermatitis from lettuce. Contact Dermatitis 29(2):109–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez MS, Jacobs S, Jiang SB, Brancaccio RR, Soter NA, Cohen DE (2003) Photocontact allergy to diallyl disulfide. Am J Contact Dermatitis 14(3):161–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amado A, Jacob SE (2007) Contact dermatitis caused by foods. Actas Dermosifiliogr 98(7):452–458. Review. SpanishCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amaro C, Goossens A (2008) Immunological occupational contact urticaria and contact dermatitis from proteins: a review. Contact Dermatitis 58(2):67–75CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bahna SL (2004) Adverse food reactions by skin contact. Allergy 59(Suppl 78):66–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbaud A, Poreaux C, Penven E, Waton J (2015) Occupational protein contact dermatitis. Eur J Dermatol 25(6):527–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauer A, Bartsch R, Stadeler M, Schneider W, Grieshaber R, Wollina U, Gebhardt M (1998) Development of occupational skin diseases during vocational training in baker and confectioner apprentices: a follow-up study. Contact Dermatitis 39:307–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer A, Bartsch R, Hersmann C, Stadeler M, Kelterer D, Schneider W, Seidel A, Schiele R, Elsner P (2001) Occupational hand dermatitis in food industry apprentices: results of a 3-year follow-up cohort-study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74:437–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauer A, Geier J, Elsner P (2002) Type IV allergy in the food processing industry: sensitization profiles in bakers, cooks and butchers. Contact Dermatitis 46:228–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beier RC, Oertli EH (1983) Psoralen and other linear furocoumarins as phytoalexins in celery. Photochemistry 22:2595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berkley SF, Hightower AW, Beier RC, Fleming DW, Brokopp CD, Ivie GW, Broome CV (1986) Dermatitis in grocery workers associated with high natural concentrations of furanocoumarins in celery. Ann Intern Med 105(3):351–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Birmingham DJ, Key MM, Tubich GE, Perone VB (1961) Phototoxic bullaee among celery harvesters. Arch Dermatol 83:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bleumink E, Nater JP (1973) Contact dermatitis to garlic; crossreactivity between garlic, onion and tulip. Arch Dermatol Forsch 247(2):117–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA (2007) Garlic (Allium sativum L.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 51(11):1386–1397. ReviewCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowers AG (1999) Phytophotodermatitis. Am J Contact Dermatitis 10(2):89–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brancaccio RR, Alvarez MS (2004) Contact allergy to food. Dermatol Ther 17(4):302–313. ReviewCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruce RS (1986) Potato sensitivity, an occupational allergy in housewives. Acta Allergol 21:507Google Scholar
  20. Calvert ML, Robertson I, Samaratunga H (1996) Mango dermatitis: allergic contact dermatitis to Mangifera indica. Australas J Dermatol 37(1):59–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carino M, Cassano N et al (1997) Occupational contact urticaria from paprika. Contact Dermatitis 37:135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carmichael AJ, Foulds IS, Tan CY (1989) Allergic contact dermatitis from potato flesh. Contact Dermatitis 20(1): 64–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chan EF, Mowad C (1998) Contact dermatitis to foods and spices. Am J Contact Dermatitis 9(2):71–79. ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cronin E (1987) Dermatitis of the hands in caterers. Contact Dermatitis 17(5):265–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cuesta-Herranz J, Lazaro M, De Las Heras M et al (1998) Peach allergy pattern: experience in 70 patients. Allergy 53:78–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ermertcan AT, Oztürkcan S, Sahin MT, Bilaç C, Bilaç DB (2007) Acute irritant contact dermatitis due to ‘apium graveolens’. Contact Dermatitis 57(2):122–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Esfahani A, Chamlin SL (2017) Garlic dermatitis on the neck of an infant treated for nasal congestion. Pediatr Dermatol. [Epub ahead of print]
  28. Foti C, Carino M, Cassano N, Panebianco R, Veña GA, Ambrosi L (1997) Occupational contact urticaria from paprika. Contact Dermatitis 37(3):135CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Fouls I, Sadhra S (1990) Allergic contact dermatitis from carrots. Contact Dermatitis 23:261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Friedman BT, Harper R, Glucksberg A, Strote J (2016) In the limelight. J Emerg Med 50(3):504–505CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Friis B, Hjorth N, Vail JT Jr, Mitchell JC (1975) Occupational contact dermatitis from Cichorium (chicory, endive) and Lactuca (lettuce). Contact Dermatitis 1(5):311–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gala Ortiz G, Condé-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, de la Hoz C, Cuevas Augustin M (2000) Occupational protein contact dermatitis from fruits. Contact Dermatitis 43:43Google Scholar
  33. García S, Lombardero M, Serra-Baldrich E, Amat P, Lluch-Pérez M, Malet A (2004) Occupational protein contact dermatitis due to melon. Allergy 59(5):558–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gaul LE (1964) Contact dermatitis from synthetic oil of mustard. Arch Dermatol 90:158–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Güntz EJ (1880) Milaria-Ausschlag infolge Berührung mit rohem Spargel (Asparagus officinalis). Vierteljahresschr Dermatol Syph 12:65–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hannuksela M, Lahti A (1977) Immediate reactions to fruits and vegetables. Contact Dermatitis 3:70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hausen BM (1988) Allergiepflanzen – Pflanzenallergene. Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft, LandsbergGoogle Scholar
  38. Hausen BM, Wolf C (1996) 1,2,3-trithiane-5-carboxylic acid, a first contact allergen from Asparagus officinalis (Liliaceae). Am J Contact Dermatitis 7(1):41–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Helander I (1984) Contact dermatitis to lettuce. Contact Dermatitis 11(4):249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hershko K, Weinberg I, Ingber A (2005) Exploring the mango-poison ivy connection: the riddle of discriminative plant dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 52(1):3–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J (1976) Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact Dermatitis 2(1):28–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Janssens V, Morren M, Dooms-Goossens A, Degreef H (1995) Protein contact dermatitis: myth or reality? Br J Dermatol 132(1):1–6. ReviewCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jappe U, Bonnekoh B, Hausen BM, Gollnick H (1999) Garlic-related dermatoses: case report and review of the literature. Am J Contact Dermatitis 10(1):37–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kanerva L, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R, Estlander T (1996a) Statistical data on occupational contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 35(4):229–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R (1996b) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 35(3):157–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kawai M, Tamagawa-Mineoka R, Hagura A, Masuda K, Katoh N (2014) Allergic contact dermatitis due to carrots. J Dermatol 41(8):753–754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Killig C, Werfel T (2008) Contact reactions to food. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 8(3):209–214. ReviewCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kim AS, Christiansen SC (2015) Mango: pulp fiction? Contact Dermatitis 73(2):123–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kimmich JM, Klauder JV (1956) Sensitization dermatitis to carrots; report of cross-sensitization phenomenon and remarks on phytophotodermatitis. AMA Arch Dermatol 74(2):149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kleine-Tebbe J, Ollert M, Jakob T (2010) Molekulare Allergologie – Teil 1. Nomenklatur, Proteinfamilien, Datenbanken und potentieller Nutzen. Allergo J 19:390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krook G (1973) Contact dermatitis due to lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Contact Dermatitis Newslett 13:346Google Scholar
  52. Krook G (1977) Occupational dermatitis from Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Cichorium (endive). Simultaneous occurrence of immediate and delayed allergy as a cause of contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 3(1):27–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lambrecht C, Goossens A (2015) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by capsicum. Contact Dermatitis 72(4):252–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lembo G, Balato N, Patruno C, Auricchio L, Ayala F (1991) Allergic contact dermatitis due to garlic (Allium sativum). Contact Dermatitis 25(5):330–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lerbaek A, Rastogi SC, Menné T (2004) Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate in a Danish cohort of 259 selected patients. Contact Dermatitis 51(2): 79–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Levin C, Warshaw E (2008) Protein contact dermatitis: allergens, pathogenesis, and management. Dermatitis 19(5):241–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ljunggren B (1990) Severe phototoxic burn following celery ingestion. Arch Dermatol 126(10):1334–1336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lukács J, Schliemann S, Elsner P (2016) Occupational contact urticaria caused by food – a systematic clinical review. Contact Dermatitis 75(4):195–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Luppi A, Bucci G (1970) Epidemiological studies of morbidity in a rural community. 3. An occupational dermatitis in gardeners caused by celery and parsley. Ig Mod 63(11):617–623. ItalianPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Maibach HI, Johnson HL (1975) Contact urticaria syndrome. Contact urticaria to diethyltoluamide (immediate type hypersensitivity). Arch Dermatol 111:726–730CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Malten KE (1983) Chicory dermatitis from September to April. Contact Dermatitis 9(3):232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Marcos LA, Kahler R (2015) Phytophotodermatitis. Int J Infect Dis 38:7–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Martínez de Lagrán Z, Ortiz de Frutos FJ, Gonzáles de Arribas M et al (2009) Contact urticaria to raw potato. Dermatol Online J 15:14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McFadden JP, White IR, Rycroft RJ (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic. Contact Dermatitis 27(5): 333–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Milanesi N, Gola M (2016) Irritant contact dermatitis caused by savoy cabbage. Contact Dermatitis 74(1): 60–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mitchell JC, Jordan WP (1974) Allergic contact dermatitis from the radish, Raphanus sativus. Br J Dermatol 91(2):183–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mitchell D, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1989) Contact sensitivity to lettuce in a chef. Contact Dermatitis 20(5): 398–399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Modi GM, Doherty CB, Katta R, Orengo IF (2009) Irritant contact dermatitis from plants. Dermatitis 20:63–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Murdoch SR, Dempster J (2000) Allergic contact dermatitis from carrot. Contact Dermatitis 42(4):236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Oka K, Saito F, Yasuhara T, Sugimoto A (2004) A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol. Contact Dermatitis 51(5–6):292–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1991) Compositae dermatitis aggravated by eating lettuce. Contact Dermatitis 24(4):318–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Papageorgiou C, Corbet JP, Menezes-Brandao F, Pecegueiro M, Benezra C (1983) Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic ( Allium sativum L.). Identification of the allergens: the role of mono-, di-, and trisulfides present in garlic. A comparative study in man and animal (guinea-pig). Arch Dermatol Res 275(4): 229–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pathak MA (1986) Phytophotodermatitis. Clin Dermatol 4(2):102–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Paulsen E, Andersen KE (2016) Lettuce contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis 74(2):67–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Paulsen E, El-Houri RB, Andersen KE, Christensen LP (2015) Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 72(3): 172–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Perone VB, Scheel LD, Meitus RJ (1964) A bioassay for the quantitation of cutaneous reactions associated WITH pink-rot celery. J Invest Dermatol 42:267–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Polunin I (1951) Pineapple dermatosis. Br J Dermatol 63(12):441–455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rademaker M, Yung A (2000) Contact dermatitis to Asparagus officinalis. Australas J Dermatol 41(4):262–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rafaat M, Leung AK (2000) Garlic burns. Pediatr Dermatol 17(6):475–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sánchez HC, Hernández M, Morena V et al (1997) Immunologic contact urticaria caused by asparagus. Contact Dermatitis 37:181–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sánchez-Guerrero IM, Escudero AI (1998) Occupational contact dermatitis to broccoli. Allergy 53(6):621–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Scheman A, Gupta S (2001) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Dermatitis 45(3): 179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Seligman PJ, Mathias CG, O’Malley MA, Beier RC, Fehrs LJ, Serrill WS, Halperin WE (1987) Phytophotodermatitis from celery among grocery store workers. Arch Dermatol 123(11):1478–1482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sinha SM, Pasricha JS, Sharma R, Kandhari KC (1977) Vegetables responsible for contact dermatitis of the hands. Arch Dermatol 113(6):776–779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Swerdlin A, Rainey D, Storrs FJ (2010) Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 21(4):214–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Temesvari E, Becker K (1993) Contact urticaria from watermelon in a patient with pollen allergy. Contact Dermatitis 28:185–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. van Ketel WG, de Haan P (1978) Occupational eczema from garlic and onion. Contact Dermatitis 4(1):53–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Veien NK (1997) Ingested food in systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Clin Dermatol 15(4):547–555. ReviewCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Veien NK, Hattel T, Justesen O, Nørholm A (1983) Causes of eczema in the food industry. Derm Beruf Umwelt 31(3):84–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Vickers HR (1941) The carot as a cause of dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 53:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. von Krogh G, Maibach HI (1982) The contact urticaria syndrome. Semin Dermatol 1:59–66Google Scholar
  92. Wüthrich B (1998) Food-induced cutaneous adverse reactions. Allergy 53(Suppl 46):131–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Bauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wolfgang Uter
    • 2
  • Christiane Szliska
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, University Allergy CenterUniversity Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and EpidemiologyUniversity of Erlangen/NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyBethesda HospitalFreudenbergGermany

Personalised recommendations