Advertisement

Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Occupation

  • Edith M. de Boer
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Chronic venous disease is an often-trivialized common multifactorial slowly progressive disease, increasing with age and influenced by obesity, parity, heredity, and lifestyle.

Comparison of studies on chronic venous disease and occupation is hampered by lack of uniformity of definition of venous disease, working position, sample size, etc.

Exact data on the influence of work on the development/progression of venous disease and vice versa lack.

Ambulatory hypertension due to hampered venous return occurs with inactivity of the calf muscle pump, such as in prolonged standing.

Evening edema is physiological and can be prevented by low-pressure (10–20 mmHg) medical elastic stockings. The use of low-pressure elastic below-knee stockings should be considered for each worker with a predominantly standing or sitting position at work.

With a short questionnaire and a simple physical examination (the risk for), venous disease can be easily established.

Medical elastic stockings are the devices of choice for the prevention of venous disease, for relief of complaints, and for slowing down progression. They are an indispensable part of the treatment of subjects with venous disease. The choice of stocking requires knowledge of the subscriber of both the properties of the individual worker and of stockings.

Keywords

Chronic venous insufficiency Occupation Profession Elastic stocking Compression 

References

  1. Amsler F, Blättler W (2008) Compression therapy for occupational leg symptoms and chronic venous disorders – a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 35(3):366–372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Coleridge Smith PD, Nicolaides AN, Boisseau MR, Eklöf B (2006) Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med 355:488–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blättler W, Kreis N, Lun B, Winiger J, Amsler F (2008) Leg symptoms of healthy people and their treatment with compression hosiery. Phlebology 23:214–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brand FN, Dannenberg AL, Abbott RD et al (1988) The epidemiology of varicose veins: the Framingham study. Am J Prev Med 4:96–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpentier PH, Maricq HR, Biro C, Poncot-Makinen CO, Franco A (2004) Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical patterns of chronic venous disorders of lower limbs: a population-based study in France. J Vasc Surg 40:650–659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Criqui MH, Jamosmos M, Fronek A, Denenberg JO, Langer RD, Bergan J et al (2003) Chronic venous disease in an ethnically diverse population: the San Diego population study. Am J Epidemiol 158:448–456CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Criqui MH, Denenberg JO, Langer RD, Kaplan RM, Fronek A (2007) Epidemiology of chronic peripheral venous disease. In: Bergan JJ (ed) The vein book. Elsevier/Academic, Amsterdam/BostonGoogle Scholar
  8. de Boer EM, Broekhuijsen RW, Nieboer C, Bezemer PD (1999) Lycra support tights: are they effective? Phlebology 14:162–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eklöf B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, Carpentier P, Gloviczki P, Kistner RL, for the American Venous Forum International Ad Hoc Committee for Revision of the CEAP classification et al (2004) Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement. J Vasc Surg 40:1248–1252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans CJ, Fowkes FRG, Ruckley VC, Lee AJ (1999) Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population. Edinburgh vein study. J Epidemiol Community Health 53:149–153CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Fischer H (1980) Sozioepidemiologische studie über die venenleiden bei einer erwachsenen wohnbevölkerung in der bundesrepublik Deutschland. Phlebol Proktol 9:147–152Google Scholar
  12. Flore R, Gerardino L, Santoliquido A, Pola R, Flex A, Di Campli C, Pola P, Tondi P (2004) Enhanced oxidative stress in workers with a standing occupation. Occup Environ Med 61:548–550CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Flore R, Gerardino L, Santoliquido A, Catananti C, Pola P, Tondi P (2007) Reduction of oxidative stress by compression stockings in standing workers. Occup Med 57:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jawien A (2003) The influence of environmental factors in chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 54(Suppl 1):19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jawien A, Grzla T, Ochwat A (2003) Prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in men and women in Poland: multicenter cross-sectional study in 40,095 patients. Phlebology 18:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krijnen RMA, de Boer EM, Adèr HJ, Bruynzeel DP (1997a) Venous insufficiency in male workers with a standing profession. Part 1: epidemiology. Dermatology 194:111–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Krijnen RMA, de Boere EM, Adèr HJ, Bruynzeel DP (1997b) Venous insufficiency in male workers with a standing profession. Part 2: diurnal volume changes of the lower legs. Dermatology 194:121–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Krijnen RMA, de Boer EM, Adèr HJ, Osinga DSC, Bruynzeel DP (1997c) Compression stockings and rubber floor mats: do they benefit workers with CVI and a standing profession? J Occup Dermatol 39:889–894Google Scholar
  19. Krijnen RMA, de Boer EM, Adèr HJ, Bruynzeel DP (1998) Diurnal volume changes of the lower legs in healthy males with a profession that requires standing. Skin Res Technol 4:18–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Labropoulos N, Delis KT, Nicolaides AN (1995) Venous reflux in symptom-free vascular surgeons. J Vasc Surg 22:150–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Maurins U, Hoffmann BH, Lösch C, Jöckel KH, Rabe E, Pannier F (2008) Distribution and prevalence of reflux in the superficial and deep venous system in the general population–results from the Bonn Vein Study, Germany. J Vasc Surg. 48(3):680–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Meissner MH, Moneta G, Burnand K, Gloviczki P, Lurie F, Mattos MA, McLafferty RB, Mozes G et al (2007) The hemodynamics and diagnosis of venous disease. J Vasc Surg 46:4S–24SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pannier-Fischer F, Rabe E (2003) Epidemiologie der chronischen venenerkrankungen. Hautartz 54:1037–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Partsch H, Winiger J, Lun B (2004) Compression stockings reduce occupational leg swelling. Dermatol Surg 30:737–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rabe E, Pannier F (2009a) Epidemiology of chronic venous disease. In: Abstract book XVI world meeting of the UIP 2009, Monte Carlo, p 72Google Scholar
  26. Rabe E, Pannier F (2009b) Epidemiology of chronic venous disorders. In: Gloviczki P et al (eds) Handbook of venous disorders, 3rd edn. Hodder Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Rabe E, Pannier F (2009c) Use of MCS in the general population – data from the Bonn vein study. In: Abstractbook XVI world meeting of the UIP 2009, Monte Carlo, p 178Google Scholar
  28. Rabe E, Pannier-Fischer F, Bromen K, Schuldt K, Stang A, Poncar C, Wittenhorst M, Bock E, Weber S, Jöckel K-H (2003) Bonner venenstudie der deutschen gesellschaft für phlebologie. Epidemiologische untersuchung zur frage der häufigkeit und ausprägung von chronischen venenkrankheiten in der städtischen und ländlichen wohnbevölkerung. Phlebologie 32:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rabe E, Ko A, Berboth G, Pannier F, Hofmann B, Hertel S (2009) Incidence of varicose veins and CVI in the Bonn vein study II. In: Abstract book XVI world meeting of the UIP 2009, Monte Carlo, p 154Google Scholar
  30. Ruckley CV, Evans CJ, Allan PL, Lee AJ, Fowkes FG (2002) Chronic venous insufficiency: clinical and duplex correlations. The Edinburgh Vein Study of venous disorders in the general population. J Vasc Surg 36(3):520–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Schultz-Ehrenburg U, Weindorf N, von Uslar D et al (1989) Prospective epidemiologische studie die entstehungsweise der krampfadern bei kindern und jugendlichen (Bochumer studie I und II). Phlebol Proktol 18:3–11Google Scholar
  32. Schultz-Ehrenburg U, Reich-Schupke S, Robak-Pawelczyk B, Rudolph T, Moll C, Weindorf N, Hirche H, Altmeyer P, Stücker M (2009) Prospective epidemiological study on the beginning of varicose veins Bochum study I-IV. Phlebologie 38:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stücker M, Puyn S, Rabe E, Altmeyer P, Reich-Schupke S (2010) Evaluation eines standardisierten fragebogens als screening-instrument fuer venenerkrankungen. Hautarzt: 61(3):234–40Google Scholar
  34. Tüchsen F, Hannerz H, Burr KN (2005) Prolonged standing at work and hospitalisation due to varicose veins: a 12 year prospective study of the Danish population. Occup Environ Med 62:847–850CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. van der Wegen-Franken K (2009) Medical elastic stockings. Thesis, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. van Rij AM, De Alwis CS, Jiang P, Christie RA, Hill GB, Dutton SJ, Thomson IA (2008) Obesity and impaired venous function. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 35:739–744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Widmer LK, Stähelin HB, Nissen C, da Silva A (1981) Venen-, Arterien-Krankheiten, koronare Herzkrankheit bei Berufstätigen, Prospektiv-epidemiologische Untersuchung (Basler Studie I-II). Hans Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  38. Zahariev T, Anastassov V, Girov K, Goranova E, Grodzinski L, Kniajev V, Stankev S (2009) The prevalence of primary chronic venous disease: the Bulgarian experience. Int Angiol 28:303–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ziegler S, Eckhardt G, Stöger R, Machula J, Rüdiger HW (2003) High prevalence of chronic venous disease in hospital employees. Wien Klin Wochenschr 115(15–16):549–551Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyVU Medisch CentrumAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations