Principles for Developing a Safe and Sustainable Valorization of Food Waste for Animal Feed: Second Generation Feedstuff

  • David San Martin
  • Carlos Bald
  • Marta Cebrian
  • Bruno Iñarra
  • Mikel Orive
  • Saioa Ramos
  • Jaime Zufía
Living reference work entry

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Developed countries are producing and consuming more food than needed, which generates a significant amount of food waste. Within this framework, three main strategies have been proposed to control this food wastage: reduction, reuse, and recycle. In the hierarchy of valorization options for any food waste, the reuse for human food or ingredient has to be prioritized, however, due to technical requirements; this option could not be always implemented. The use of food wastes as a second generation feedstuff is an interesting option to many food sectors since it could reduce land use competition, the dependence on the current feed raw materials, the cost of animal feed, as well as the environmental impact associated to its production. However, the feasibility of this option depends on several legal, technical, and economical requirements as well as environmental and social sustainability conditions. In addition, this valorization alternative demands some treatments in order to stabilize and preserve effectively.

Technological cooperation, knowledge, and involvement of different actors in the demonstration of new valorization schemes, from generators to processors and end-users, are of crucial importance due to the important and frequent constraints which affect the technical and economic feasibility of their reutilization: logistic costs, processing costs, availability of raw materials, and heterogeneity of the quality and composition of the wastes. Moreover, food safety experts and regulatory bodies have to be also involved and may contribute to promote the safe and responsible use of food waste for feed.


Food waste Valorization Animal feed Second generation feedstuff Profitability Feasibility Environmental and social sustainability 

List of Abbreviations


Animal by-products not intended for human consumption


Cost-to-income ratio


Capital recovery factor


European Commission


European Former Foodstuff Processors Association


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Food Use for Social Innovation by Optimising Waste Prevention Strategies


Food waste


Greenhouse gas


Geographic information systems


Hotel, restaurant, and catering sector


Internal return rate


Life cycle analysis


Life cycle thinking


Net present values


Payback time period


Sustainable Development Goals


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David San Martin
    • 1
  • Carlos Bald
    • 1
  • Marta Cebrian
    • 1
  • Bruno Iñarra
    • 1
  • Mikel Orive
    • 1
  • Saioa Ramos
    • 1
  • Jaime Zufía
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Efficient and Sustainable ProcessesAZTIDerioSpain

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