Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of Malnutrition

  • Narayan PrasadEmail author
  • Archana Sinha
Living reference work entry


Malnutrition is a highly prevalent and well-recognized problem in hospitalized as well as in general population but often goes unrecognized. Nutrition assessment is a comprehensive approach to define nutritional status using various methods. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is one of the most commonly used methods to assess nutritional status. SGA is a semiquantitative tool to assess nutritional status based on the history and physical examination. Data are scored subjectively and determine nutritional status in three major SGA categories as well nourished (A), mild to moderately malnourished (B), or severely malnourished (C). It is simple, noninvasive, inexpensive, and quickly executable and can be performed bedside by any skilled and trained health-care professional after brief training. It also agreeably goes with the objective methods of evaluating nutritional status. Various modified versions of SGA have been proposed since its conception to improve its precision. It helps in identifying malnutrition, predicting outcomes, and making appropriate recommendations in hospitalized patients as well as in general population.


Malnutrition Subjective Global Assessment Nutritional status Hospitalization Mortality Morbidity Malnutrition and infection Malnutrition and inflammation Malnutrition in dialysis 

List of Abbreviations


American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition


Bioimpedance analysis


Body mass index




Chronic kidney disease


Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry


Dialysis malnutrition score


European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism


End-stage renal disease


Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative


Malnutrition-Inflammation Score


National Kidney Foundation




Nutritional Risk Index


Peritoneal dialysis


Patient-Generated-Subjective Global Assessment


Subjective Global Assessment


Total iron-binding capacity


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NephrologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of DieteticsSanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

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