Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Living Edition
| Editors: William M. White

Mineral Genesis

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39193-9_342-1

Definition

Mineral genesis addresses the questions of where, why, and how minerals form and disappear, on and in the Earth (see also Crystal Growth).

The Crystalline Earth and Its Dynamics

Minerals, essentially as natural crystals, are the major constituents of the core, the mantle, and the crust of our planet. In the mantle, they form the viscous solid matter involved in slow convective movements which act as the force-transmitting medium for plate tectonics. As such, minerals undergo phase transitions, polymorphic transitions, and more generally nucleation, growth as well as resorption. This occurs in response to local and/or temporal changes in pressure/stress, temperature, and chemical composition. Internal heat production of the Earth is ultimately the cause of mineral dynamics. Most active and diverse kinetic phenomena of these kinds are expected to take place where temperature gradients and chemical gradients are prominent, i.e., in and on the crust.

Mineral growthin the...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, CINAMCampus LuminyMarseilleFrance