From Pilot Project to Permanent Status: Community Colleges in Vietnam
The primary goal of this chapter is to trace the evolution of the community college concept in Vietnam in light of local demand, national goals and global trends. Emphasis is placed on how Vietnam’s adaptation of a community college model meets the economic needs of a country in transition while also preserving its cultural identity and social values. It is the strategic relevance of these institutions in Vietnam’s changing economic structure that is of significance to “Vietnamize” elements borrowed from foreign systems of thought while maintaining Vietnamese traditions. Drawing from the personal experiences of one co-author, interviews with key stakeholders and document analysis, the authors aim to explore and contextualize how Vietnam’s community colleges have managed the forces of globalization.
KeywordsVietnam Community colleges Higher education
- Anh, Ha. 2016. The most alarming issue is the higher/tertiary education quality. Vietnamnet.com. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13810.
- Anh, Ngan and Le Huyen. 2016. The junior colleges: Where students for them to train? Vietnamnet.com. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13810.
- Ashwill, Mark. 2006. Vietnam today: Guide to a nation at a crossroads. Boston: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
- Association of Vietnam Universities and Colleges. 2016. Petition letter submitted to Prime Minister regarding MOET’s second draft of national structure of education and training system in Vietnam. https://doi.org/10.3727/096368916X691457.
- de Geoje, Peter. 2012. With solidarity greeting – Technical and scientific aid to Vietnam, 1971–2011 (Mai Van Tinh, Trans). Hanoi: Vietnam National University.Google Scholar
- Du, Huynh The. 2016, Sept 30. Interpretation of socialist oriented market economy in Vietnam. In Proceedings of the modern ideologies in economic and governance & the application for Vietnam after joining AEC and TPP (p. 47–50). Edited by Nguyen Trung Hung and Jeng-Chung Victor Chen. Ho Chi Minh City. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9110865.
- Epperson, Cindy. 2010. An Analysis of the Community College Concept in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://apps.umsl.edu/webapps/weboffice/ETD/query.cfm?id=r4941. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02886.x.
- Harvard Kennedy School Vietnam Program. 2010, July. Beyond the apex: Toward a system level approach to higher education reform in Vietnam. Retrieved from http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/beyondtheapex.pdf.
- Jamieson, Neil. 1995. Understanding Vietnam. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Intarakumnerd, Tanom. 2012. The development of community college system in Thailand. In International Perspectives on Education and Society. Edited by Alexander Wiseman, Emerald Insight. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-3679(2012)0000017018.
- Khe, Do Ba. 1970. The Community College Concept: A Study of its Relevance to Post-war Reconstruction in Vietnam (Doctoral dissertation). Los Angeles: University of Southern California.Google Scholar
- Khe, Do Ba. 1992. The difficult path toward an integrated university and community college system in Vietnam. Retrieved from http://www.kieumauthuduc.org/backup/images/KMTD_Docs/HigherEducation_DoBaKhe.pdf.
- Lam, Dang Ba, and Nguyen Huy Vi. 2009. The development of the community college model in Vietnam in the time of Country’s reorganization and international integration. In Community college models: Globalization and higher education reform, ed. Rosalind L. Raby and Edward J. Valeau, 91–110. Doretch: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lan, Vu. 2015, Nov 11. Human resources of Vietnam before the integration threshold. Nhan Dan. Retrieved from http://www.nhandan.org.vn/.
- Marklein, Mary Beth. 2009, Sept 24. Vietnam, other nations look to U.S. style community colleges. USA TODAY. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-09-23-vietnam-community-college_N.htm. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00389-09.
- Nguyen, Thi Kim Quy. 2011. Globalization and higher education in Vietnam. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 23 (1/2): 117–136.Google Scholar
- Oliver, Diane. 2009. Globalization of higher education and community colleges in Vietnam. In Community college models: Globalization and higher education reform, ed. Rosalind L. Raby and Edward J. Valeau, 197–218. Doretch: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02642.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Raby, Rosalind Latner. 2008. Defining the community college model. In Community college models: Globalization and higher education reform, ed. Rosalind L. Raby and Edward J. Valeau, 3–20. Doretch: Springer.Google Scholar
- Raby, Rosalind Latiner. 2009. Defining the Community College Model. In Community college models: Globalization and higher education reform. ed. Rosalind Latiner Raby and Edward Valeau, 1–22. Dordrecht: Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
- Shin, Jung Cheol. 2013. Higher education development in East Asian countries focusing on cultural tradition and economic systems. In The dynamics of higher education development in East Asia, ed. Deane Neubauer, Jung Cheol Shin, and John N. Hawkins, 11–27. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137347374_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tran, Ly Thi, and Simon Marginson. 2014. Education for flexibility, practicality and mobility. In Higher education in Vietnam: Flexibility, mobility and practicality in the global knowledge economy, ed. Ly Thi Tran, Simon Marginson, et al. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.purol.2014.08.043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ty, Hoang Xuan. 2016. Closing speech of MOLISA vice minister. Viet Nam Association of Community Colleges Congress meeting, Hanoi.Google Scholar
- Vaira, Massimiliano. 2004. Globalization and higher education organizational change: A framework for analysis. Higher Education 48(4): 483–510. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:HIGH.0000046711.31908.e5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vallely, Thomas J., and Ben Wilkinson. 2008. Vietnamese higher education: Crisis and response. Memorandum to higher education task force. Cambridge, MA: Ash Institute for Democratic Government and Innovation, Harvard Kenny School. Retrieved from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/innovations/asia/Documents/HigherEducationOverview112008.pdf.Google Scholar
- Van Tinh, Mai. 2016. Comparative study of the youth education systems in the world during the past 100 years. In Experience of foreign countries in internationalization of higher education application for Vietnam within integration progress. Thai Nguyen Province: Thai Nguyen University press.Google Scholar
- VOV (Voice of Vietnam). 2016. http://vov.vn/xa-hoi/giao-duc/hang-van-sinh-vien-su-pham-that-nghiep-loi-tai-ai-517333.vov.
- World Bank, Development Research Centre of the State Council of China. 2013. China 2030: Building a Modern, Harmonius, and Creative Society. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- World Economic Forum. 2016. The ASEAN economic community: What you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/05/asean-economic-community-what-you-need-to-know. https://doi.org/10.3727/096368916X691457.
- Yang, Rui. 2016. Cultural challenges facing East Asian higher education: A preliminary assessment. In Handbook of Asian Higher Education, ed. Christopher Collins, Molly N.N. Lee, John N. Hawkins, and Deane Neubauer. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Zha, Qiang, Jinghuan Shi, and Xiaoyang Wang. 2016. Is there an alternative university model? The debate around the Chinese model of the university. In Handbook of the Sociology of Higher Education, ed. James Côté and Andy Furlong, 273–285. Milton Park: Routledge.Google Scholar