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Mechanical Implant Material Selection, Durability, Strength, and Stiffness

  • Robert Sommerich
  • Melissa (Kuhn) DeCelle
  • William J. FrasierEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Spinal implants are manufactured from a variety of materials to meet user needs as well as the requirements of the physical and environmental demands upon the device. Commonly used materials include titanium, stainless steel, cobalt-chrome, nitinol, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), silicon nitride, biodegradable polymers, and allograft bone. Material choices can be driven by requirements for strength, biocompatibility, bone ongrowth, flexibility, and radiolucency. Coatings may also be applied to the implants to further enhance physical or biological properties of the implant. These may include hydroxyapatite, titanium plasma, or a combination of these two materials. Additionally, implants may have a porous layer or open structure for improvement of osteointegration. Spinal implants are commonly made using conventional manufacturing methods such as machining and injection molding, but additive manufacturing is becoming more commonly used to produce certain implants.

Keywords

Spinal Implant Titanium PEEK Cobalt-chrome Interbody Pedicle screw Cage Rod Hydroxyapatite 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Sommerich
    • 1
  • Melissa (Kuhn) DeCelle
    • 1
  • William J. Frasier
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research and DevelopmentDePuy Synthes SpineRaynhamUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Hassan Serhan
    • 1
  • Tony Tannoury
    • 2
  1. 1.Co-founder & TreasurerI.M.S. SocietyEastenUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsBoston University Medical CenterBostonUSA

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