Encyclopedia of Wireless Networks

Living Edition
| Editors: Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, Xiaodong Lin, Kuan Zhang

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

  • Sheng ZhongEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32903-1_175-1



Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a security standard designed for wireless networks. WPA implements most of the IEEE 802.11i standard and was an alternative to previous security standard before 802.11i was developed, so it is sometimes referred to as the draft IEEE 802.11i standard.

Historical Background

WPA was developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to provide better security than Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), the previous Wi-Fi security standard. WPA became available in 2003, and it was intended as a transitional measure for the full IEEE 802.11i standard (also referred to as WAP2), which became available in 2004. WAP2 may not work with some older network cards, while WPA can work well with these older network cards. Therefore, WPA and WPA2 are concurrent security standards.

There are typically two versions of WPA based on the differences in target users:
  • WPA-Personal mode, also referred to as WPA-PSK, is designed for home and small...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Haojin Zhu
    • 1
  • Jian Shen
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai Jiaotong University, ChinaShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, ChinaNanjingChina