Encyclopedia of Wireless Networks

Living Edition
| Editors: Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, Xiaodong Lin, Kuan Zhang

Per-Beam Synchronization for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO

  • Li YouEmail author
  • Xiqi Gao
  • Geoffrey Ye Li
  • Xiang-Gen Xia
  • Ni MaEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32903-1_116-1



Per-beam synchronization refers to a synchronization approach in wireless transmission where signal synchronization in time and frequency between the transmitter and the receiver is performed over each beam individually.


Millimeter-wave massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is promising for future wireless communications (Swindlehurst et al., 2014; Cui et al., 2018; Huang et al., To appear; Liu et al., 2018; Xiao et al., 2017). One challenge in realizing cellular wireless over millimeter-wave channels is to deal with the mobility issue (Roh et al., 2014; Andrews et al, 2017). For the same mobile speed, the Doppler spread of millimeter-wave channels is orders-of-magnitude larger than that of classical wireless channels, while the delay spread does not change significantly over different frequencies, which may lead to system implementation bottleneck. Consider wideband...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Mobile Communications Research LaboratorySoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  4. 4.Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.ShenzhenChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ming Xiao
    • 1
  1. 1.KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden