Education Corruption: Egypt

  • Ahmed Alaa FayedEmail author
Living reference work entry



Corruption is defined by Transparency International (2011) as the “abuse of entrusted power for private gain.”

Corruption in education is defined as “the systemic use of public office for private benefit whose impact is significant on access, quality or equity in education” (Hallak and Poisson 2001).

Corruption is a phenomenon that has transcended time and place, as well as political regimes, cultural differences, and societal norms. As such, Robert Klitgaard, a prominent scholar on corruption, argues that corruption is as old as the establishment of government and may even be as old as the establishment of structured social interactions (Klitgaard 1988). He thus associates the emergence of corruption to a degree of sophistication reached by societies. This does not mean that the more developed a society is, the more corrupt it is. Developed societies...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Middle Eastern StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and HumanitiesUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK