Politics Without Principles, Ghana
- Politics without principles
Gandhi submitted that “when politicians (or anyone else, for that matter) give up the pursuit of truth, they, or in the case of parties, would be doomed.”
- Socioeconomic development
Socioeconomic development refers to the social and economic indicators such as health, education, gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), technology, and life expectancy rates which are linked to the development of the society (Sewell et al. 2017).
Among the seven deadly social sins proposed by Mahatma Gandhi is politics without principles (Gandhi and Gunsky 1990). Politics without principles emerged during the twentieth century in one of Gandhi’s weekly newspaper publications called the Young India in 1925 (Gandhi 1939). It has been a striking description of what occurred in sometime past and is recently reoccurring in some developed and developing countries. Politics is everywhere though some scholars do not agree to this assertion. Politics can be experienced in almost every facet of the human life. It is in the church, mosque, sports, government, and “politics is even in the bedroom.” Aristotle argued that, it is within the political society that one can achieve his or her potentials (O’Toole 2005). Politics is defined as the struggle for power that will give one or more person(s) the opportunity to make decisions for group of people (Young 2011). Politics can also be referred to as the process through which people make, preserve, and amend the general rules under which they live (Heywood 2002, p. 4).
The impact of politics on the society from the ancient, medieval, and recent times has been massive and for that reason cannot be taken for granted. Nevertheless, Jordan and Van Tuijl (2006) among other scholars have argued that politics must be linked to principles in order to have a peaceful and a developed society. Politics without principle is therefore a recipe for chaos. Mahatma Gandhi argued that politics without principles was one of the root causes of corruption, violence, and other evils in the society. To create an enabling environment for peace, growth, and sustainable development, Gandhi advocated for politics with principles. Concerning politics with principle, Gandhi asserted, “it is the expression of perfection, and as imperfect beings like us cannot practice perfection, we device every moment limits of its compromise in practice” (Gandhi and Gunsky 1990, p. 10).
The seven social sins which are also known as the seven blunders that the society commits according to Gandhi is the cause of violence and evils in the society. The seven social sins are politics without principles, wealth without work, pleasure without conscience, knowledge without character, commerce without morality, science without humanity, and worship without sacrifice (Gandhi and Gunsky 1990).
Some scholars have indicated that Gandhi’s seven social sins might have originated from Pope Gregory I in AD 590 in his list of the seven deadly sins. They are lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, envy, and pride. These seven deadly sins by Pope Gregory I was appropriate for him because he realized it was as a way to keep the flock from straying into the thorny fields of ungodliness. Though in recent times for all but the most devout, Pope Gregory’s list seems less like a means to moral behavior than a description of cable TV programming (Gandhi 1939).
The list of social sins to which politics without principles is linked to sprung from a correspondence that Gandhi had with someone who was only identified as a “fair friend.” Though major commentary was not passed on this, Gandhi wanted readers not just to know the social sins through intellect but also through the heart (Seligman 2004). The social sins by Gandhi emphasized on the conduct of people in the society. It focused on how the behavior of people in the society will bring about development and peace.
Each of these social sins by Gandhi exhibited selfishness winning out over the common good of the society. These social sins if fully observed and practiced by individuals in the society will make those who have wealth without work to work harder to yield their investment. It will also help those who are into commerce without morality to have good morals, those with knowledge without character will also build characters. It will further place a demand on people in politics or in charge of state resources to discharge their duties with high ethical principles.
This entry focuses on one of Gandhi’s social sins; politics without principle which gained prominence in the twentieth century. Regarding politics without principle, Gandhi asserted, having politics without principle is doing politics without truth, politics of lies, deceit, politics of insults, propaganda, corruption, bribery among others. These actions according to Gandhi create chaos, fuels the violence of crime, rebellion, and war (Gandhi and Gunsky 1990).
Nevertheless, researchers (Boucekkine et al. 2016) have argued that a politics may be of principle or not based on the type of political regime. There are several regime types, monarchy, dictatorship, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy. With these political regimes, Boucekkine et al. (2016) have argued that the autocracy and democratic regimes normally determine how the other political regimes interact. Due to the nature and variations of political regimes among states, it can be established that what may be of principle in one political regime may be otherwise in a different regime. In view of this, scholars have argued that the issue of principle in relation to political regimes is open to greater interpretation and hence appears subjective (van der Sloot 2017).
This study attempts to examine based on classic and contemporary literature the politics without principles in developing countries especially Ghana. The main focus of this entry is to unpack how politics without principles have impacted the socioeconomic development of Ghana and other African countries. The decision to examine this issue stems from the fact that most state officials especially in the developed and developing countries sometime are unethically principled in discharging their duties and in the distribution of resources (Rosenberg et al. 2018). The political responsibility and accountability approaches are used in this study to clarify how politics without principles has impacted the socioeconomic development of Ghana.
This entry begins with a discussion of the theoretical approach that can help unravel the impact of politics without principles on the socioeconomic development of Ghana. Literature on politics without principles and socioeconomic development are reviewed. The study concludes by analyzing how politics without principles have impacted the socioeconomic development of Ghana and discusses the approaches that can help achieve political responsibility and accountability.
The Political Responsibility Approach
Political responsibilities are inherent in the activities of individuals and organizations (Lau et al. 2018). Individuals and organizations become responsible through their day-to-day activities. Individuals become responsible citizens when they act according to the laws of the land, respect the constitution, and show basic civility. By exercising their discretion, individuals can also become responsible (Akosa and Asare 2017). However, when individuals act contrary to the laws, lack basic civility, lack respect of the laws, it does not promote good governance; this is known in this study as politics without principles.
Political responsibility is a normative concept (Coeckelbergh 2016); it refers to the commitment that individuals and organizations embrace in their quest to maintain democratic principles.
The main argument underpinning this theory of political responsibility according to Young (2011) is that individuals or organizations who are part of all sorts of irresponsible and harmful things as a result of indifference, sloppiness, malice, selfishness, or self-righteousness should be held responsible. When Young (2011) was contributing to responsibility and global justice, he asserted that, when applying the concept of responsibility, there must be clear rules of evidence.
Responsibility is normally assigned to a particular agent or individual when it is shown that their actions are connected to the outcome for which responsibility is assigned. It is important to note that responsibility can be assigned to an individual, corporation, or a government (Young 2011).
The political responsibility approach is relevant for holding individuals and organizations accountable for their actions and inactions.
Esquith (2013) argues that political responsibility calls for individuals and organizations to devotion in matters relating to humanitarian development in the society. Political responsibility refers to what politicians and public office holders are obliged to in ensuring development in the society. Thus, their duties in ensuring the rule of law and making sure the right things are done make them politically responsible. Those who are able to operate these ways bring about positive political responsibility (Esquith 2013).
The political responsibility framework which is adopted in this study is appropriate because it would help identify, control, and deal with individuals or organizations that act without principles. Political responsibility creates good governance and brings about socioeconomic development in the society. Nevertheless, there are state officials who are politically irresponsible. Gandhi referred to such officials as politicians who operate without principles. Officials with negative political responsibility really provide great disservice to their country.
The Political Accountability Approach
Contributing to the literature of political responsibility, Bovens (2007) attempted to link political responsibility to accountability. Przeworski and Stokes (1999) have argued that when the issue of accountability is raised scholars normally refer to the accountability of bureaucrats to the general public or the society. However, researchers in public administration have revealed several forms or approaches to accountability and responsibility. According to Bovens (2007), one of the approaches to accountability is political accountability. Political accountability focuses on elected representatives, political parties, voters, and the media. Political accountability is mostly practiced in democracies where voters delegate their sovereignty to popular representatives in parliamentary democracies.
Another approach of accountability is legal accountability. This form of accountability is of increasing importance to public institutions as a result of growing formalization of social institutions or due to the trust that is placed in courts. Legal accountability is usually based on specific responsibilities, formally or informally conferred on authorities. Scholars have argued that legal accountability is the most unambiguous approach to accountability because the legal scrutiny is based on detailed legal standards, prescribed by administrative status or precedent (Przeworski and Stokes 1999).
Moreover, administrative accountability is one of the accountability types Bovens (2007) indicated in his literature. There are quasi-legal forums that exercise independent and external administrative supervision and financial control. Administrative accountability inspects, supervises, checks frauds, and ensures regular and administrative scrutiny on the basis of specific statutes and prescribed norms (Friedman 1985).
Other forms of accountability as revealed by Bovens (2007) are professional accountability, social accountability, corporate accountability, hierarchical accountability, collective accountability, individual accountability, and social accountability.
Recently, Christie (2017) has argued in the public administration literature that various accountability frameworks or approaches exist in explaining accountability. Christie (2017) has indicated that different kinds of accountability and responsibility produce different types of decisions in government. Similar to the work of Bovens (2007), different types of accountability like moral/ethical and social accountability are indicated in the literature of Christie (2017).
Politics Without Principles
Gandhi submitted that when politicians (or anyone else, for that matter) give up the pursuit of truth, they, or in the case of parties, would be doomed. Partisan politics, lobbying, bribery, and other forms of malpractices are all considered “politics without principle” (Gandhi 1939). They are unprincipled. Politics without principles exist when powerful lobby groups are created for the cause of politicians to do anything to achieve their goals.
It must be noted that even in the 21st century these “unprincipled” practices appear so rampant in politics. Politics has earned the reputation of being dirty and this is so because individuals in have made it dirty. People sometimes create power groups to lobby for their personal interests and are willing to do anything to achieve their goal. Not many among human kind have learned how to resist temptation, so who is to blame for the mess we find ourselves in?
Gandhi posits that, “When politicians indulge in power games, they act without principles.” An example is to remain in power at all cost. Especially in the developing countries like most African countries, some elected leaders whose terms of office are due are not willing to step down or go for reelection. Those who accept reelection also use dubious means and methodologies to win elections. These according to Lasswell and Kaplan (2013) are unethical.
Within the context of Ghana, there have been several instances where individuals and public officials have conducted themselves in a manner which leaves little to be desired. Some of these public officials have compromised on their ethical principles, compromised on their values, and engaged in politics without principles. For example, Joy News reported in April 26, 2016, that “a brand new Ford Expedition with engine No. E173A1905101 and Chassis No. 1FMJUIJ58AEB748 was presented as a gift to the President of Ghana by a Burkinabe contractor in 2012. The said Ford Expedition entered Ghana on October 29, 2012. It was within this same year that the Burkinabe Contractor was awarded two contracts by the Government of Ghana. The contracts were the $650,000 Ghana Embassy Fence Wall and Dodo Pepeso-Nkwanta road worth €25.9million after several failed attempts by the same person to win a contract” (Joy News 2016). From the report, it was observed that a gift was presented to win contract. This action and many other unprincipled cases have occurred in Ghana and many other African countries. Also, activities by individuals in high positions do not only affect the smooth running of the country but also contribute to huge sum of revenue loss to the state. This hinders the government’s quest to provide public goods, hinders development, and increase poverty.
A study by Campbell (1993) has shown that politics without principle is not only linked to Africa or the developing countries. There are politics without principles in the developed countries also. Campbell (1993) related the politics without principles in the developed countries to the war options or defense strategies that are adopted by some developed countries. For example, the stand and support by the USA in the invasion of Kuwait according to Wallerstein (2002) were too aggressive and biased. In Michael Gordon and Trainor’s view on the Kuwait invasion, they submitted: “it was more like a one-sided clay pigeon shoot than armored battle” (Gordon and Trainor 1995). Though other writers disagreed with the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, however, the stand by the USA appeared one-sided and aggressive. These actions by the USA in relation to the Kuwait invasion, according to Miller (2008), seemed unprincipled and not healthy in international politics.
It is important to establish that, some of the developed countries have threatened the developing countries by stressing they would reduce or stop giving them aid if they do not accept or support their policies. For example, the US President threatened to cut aid to countries over the UN Jerusalem vote (BBC News 2017). It appears the aids given to the less developed countries are done so that the less developed countries would support the powerful countries. Moreover, in the developed countries just like some developing countries, issues of subtle racism, religious discrimination, and bigotry abound.
Principle refers to a comprehensive and fundamental law, code of conduct, doctrine, or assumption (Proper and Greefhorst 2010). Principles are fundamental norms, rules, or values that represent what is desirable and positive for a person, group, organization, or community and helps in determining the rightfulness or wrongfulness of its actions (Proper and Greefhorst 2010).
Gandhi defined principle as “the expression of perfection, and as imperfect beings like us cannot practice perfection, we device every moment limits of its compromise in practice” (Gandhi 1939, p. 78).
Principles are more basic than policy and objectives and are meant to govern both. It is important to note that principles are used as a basis for prediction and action. This implies that principle regulates the actions and inactions of individuals, groups, organizations, and nations. Principles define what is right and wrong (Mackie 1990).
Perkins (2002) has indicated that there is an international human right law that protects freedom of the press, provides cross-culturally reliable foundation through which there is the universal principle when it comes to ethics in journalism. It has been deduced from Perkins (2002) perspective of principle that every sector or area has it principle that it operates. In the area of medical science, they have their principle; economics, there is principle; and politics, there is principle. There is principle in everything we do in the world. Without principle, the foundation of what is meant to exist collapse.
With regards to principle and in the context of politics, Herbert (1880) has argued that “politics must be based on general principles grounded in an understanding of human nature” (p. 1). Since politics is part of the human race, it must be based on principles. However, the word principle causes some sort of horror to the people who are indulging in politics. It must be observed that principles in politics will bring an idle way of thinking. Herbert (1880) has indicated that those who object to general principles in politics and renounce their supremacy are betrayed by the incautious caution. The universal law cannot be disregarded without injury to every part of humanity. Principles are, however, a truer approach in regulating politics and the development of the society.
Socioeconomic development is concerned with the social and economic development in the society. The pivot surrounding socioeconomic development lies in low levels of per-capita income and low standards of living (Dastjerdi and Isfahani 2011). It must be noted that the concept of socioeconomic development refers to the social and economic indicators such as health, education, gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment FDI, technology, and life expectancy rates which are linked to the development of the society (Sewell et al. 2017).
It has been stated in literature that activities like tourism has contributed to the socioeconomic development in Kenya. In Kenya, tourism has contributed to the socioeconomic development both at the local and national level. The research by Sewell et al. (2017) has indicated that the use of balance score card by retailers in South Africa is generating sustainable profitability as well as contributing to the socioeconomic development of South Africa.
Analysis and Discussions
How Politics Without Principles Have Impacted the Socioeconomic Development of Ghana and Africa
There are other key politics without principles variables (racism, lobbying, power games among others) that could be used to explain the socio-economic development of Ghana and other African countries. Nevertheless, the analysis of this study was hinged on two crucial politics without principles variables: corruption and failure of leadership.
How Corruption Has Affected the Socioeconomic Development of Ghana and Africa
Studies and other scientific reports like the Transparency International Global Corruption Report have shown that political leaders and other public officers in Africa and other developing countries in the world have engaged in one form of corruption or the other (Andersson and Heywood 2009). This kind of practice by politicians is what Gandhi has indicated as politics without principle. Corruption is undoubtedly the present social menace in Ghana and other African countries. Recently in Ghana, an investigative journalist revealed how some politicians and individuals who hold public offices were found in the act of corruption.
Box 1 shows a case of a corrupt activity that was exposed by Anas Aremeyaw Anas in the Ghana Judicial Service. This was reported by Citifm (one of the renowned radio stations in Ghana) in 2015.
Box 1 Anas Descends on Judges in “Stinking” Corruption Scandal
On 8 September 2015, ace investigative journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas exposed some corrupt activities within Ghana’s judicial arm of Government. The video points fingers at very notable judges who have been involved in high profile cases in the country in a damning corruption scandal. A total of 34 judges were caught on camera receiving bribes while others were involved in other corruption-related activities to influence judgment. The high profile judges including, Justice John Ajet-Nassam, a High Court Judge, who freed Alfred Agbesi Woyome in the controversial GHC51 million judgment debt scandal, have been videotaped and audio recorded in separate conversations with suspects or persons acting as agents of suspects before them to compromise big cases. A Human Rights Court judge Kofi Essel Mensah, Charles Quist (a High Court Judge) allegedly making demands to throw away cases which include robbery, murder, and corruption among others.
Source: Citi News (2015). http://citifmonline.com/2015/09/08/anas-descends-on-judges-in-stinking-corruption-scandal-trailer/
Judges who are expected to be an example to the people with regards to integrity and to administer justice were rather caught on camera receiving bribes according to the case above. This is unethical and dangerous to the society. The case of bribery and corruption is very common in Africa and other developing countries.
It is important to establish that corruption exist in all political jurisdiction globally, however, it is believed to be more evident in transitional democracies particularly African countries. Due to the extent of corruption in African countries as in the case of Ghana, public administration practitioners and other scholars have indicated that corruption has negatively affected the socioeconomic development of Ghana and other African countries (Yeboah-Assiamah et al. 2014).
The cases and magnitude of corruption marveled some scholars in Africa to the extent of them admitting that “corruption is here, corruption is there, corruption is everywhere” (Yeboah-Assiamah et al. 2014).
One of the negative effects of bribery and corruption on the socioeconomic development of Ghana is that it brings high prices of goods and services on Ghanaian consumers. When entrepreneurs and businessmen pay bribes to politicians or public office holders, it is viewed by the businessmen as part of the cost of doing business and they transfer it unto the people which lead to high cost of goods and services in the country.
For instance, when a businessman goes to the Tema Habour to take delivery of goods, it has been reported that all kinds of bribes are taken by the officials. However, these bribes that are paid may be tacked onto the final prices of goods and services to the public.
More importantly, Ghana and other African countries lose several billions of dollars to corruption annually (Musila and Sigué 2010). According to IMANI Ghana (an influential think tank in Ghana in the fight against corruption), Ghana loses about $3 billion annually on corruption. The $3 billion stated by the IMANI Ghana was linked to Ghana Auditor General’s annual report (IMANI Ghana 2016). Box 2 gives details of the report by IMANI Ghana.
Box 2 Ghana loses $3 billion annually in corruption: IMANI
Mr. Cudjoe, the director of Imani Ghana, a pressure group and a policy think tank, on 15 May 2016 indicated that Ghana loses about $3 billion annually. This comment was based on analysis of the 2014 Auditor General’s report. He cited that corruption in state institutions is taking a toll on the economy and must be checked. He stated that “…My estimation about grand corruption in this country looking at the numbers from the Auditor General’s report on an annual basis and doing an extrapolation looks to me about $3 billion a year. I think it may be conservative but I think it is significant.” The Auditor-General, Richard Quartei Quartey, in his 2014 report recommended the prosecution of various officials of Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies (MMDAs) indicted in the report for various financial and legal infractions. Whereas just 195 out of the 216 assemblies submitted their books for auditing, 21 assemblies failed to comply with the legal requirement.
Several public institutions were also cited in the report for various financial malfeasance. The report also cited the Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) for blowing GH¢c99, 663 on the distribution of Christmas hampers. The report also stated that the Ghana Railway Company Limited is said to be struggling to trace an amount of GH¢25, 404 belonging to the company. According to the report, the company received a total cash amount of GH¢3, 422,574.76 at the end of 2009, out of which GH¢3, 397,170.47 was sent to the bank “leaving a balance of GH¢ 25,404.29 which could not be traced.”
Based on the IMANI Ghana 2016 report, over $3 billion is wasted annually on corruption. These are coming from the public services of Ghana. Other public and private organizations are also reported on their act of corruption.
It has also been shown in literature that corruption has reduced the commitments from international development actors (Grindle 2004). Corruption reduces the quick flows of aids that are used for development in the country. Ghana and other African countries like Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire among others have benefitted immensely from aid inflows from donor agencies like IMF, USAID, and UNICEF. However, these agencies are now concerned that their support in the form of aid for sustainable development are not used for the intended purpose but end up in the hands of corrupt politicians or government. It is in this view that the US government indicated recently that corruption in Ghana is on the rise and pragmatic measures have not been taken to cure this menace.
Furthermore, politics without principles through corruption has reduced the tax revenues in Ghana. Corruption has led to the loss of tax revenue in the form of tax evasion or the improper use of discretionary tax exemptions. It was reported by the myjoyonline.com on the 24 April 2017 that a relative to the former President of Ghana owed the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) about 20 million Ghana cedis for some equipment the individual imported into the country and did not pay the due tax. This case and other government official’s conduct of not paying tax reduces tax revenues that are intended to develop the country.
More importantly, corruption reduces foreign direct investment (FDI). The World Bank (1997) has reported that FDI may flow in the countries that are found corruptible but bribery may reduce the FDI in the country. Corruption negatively affects foreign firms in the cost of doing business. However, high levels of corruption have the tendency to risk Ghana of being marginalized in the international economy.
Failure of Leadership and How It Has Affected the Socioeconomic Development of Ghana
In Ghana, failure of leadership has affected negatively the country’s economic fortunes. The failure by government hinges on the fact that leadership in Ghana has failed in its quest to address the issues of bribery, corruption that also influence negatively the socioeconomic development of the country.
In Ghana, the Commission for Human Right and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) Act (Act 456) was enacted in accordance with the provisions of the Fourth Republican Constitution in October 1993 to establish the Commission. Among the role of the commission is to promote integrity and decency in Ghanaian public life by investigating corruption and educating the public about its high costs and, conversely, the significant pay-offs of a relatively corrupt free society. In 2014, there was a report on the wasteful expenditure undertaken by then CHRAJ boss, which questions whether the leadership of the commission was upholding the principles it had to work with. Box 3 shows details of the CHRAJ boss case.
Box 3 CHRAJ Boss Rent
The Daily Graphic’s investigations published on Tuesday 16 September 2014 casts a terribly bad image on the Commissioner of the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ), Ms. Lauretta Lamptey, and the concerned state actors. The state had spent a total of $203,500 in 37 months for her rent. This was because the CHRAJ boss lived in a $456.25 per day hotel accommodation after the US$5500 monthly rent for her apartment at the exquisite AU Village expired. Her official residence renovation at the cost of GH¢182,000 was also yet to be completed. The revelation by the Daily Graphic report raises critical issues such who is responsible for dolling out $4500.00 USD as monthly rental in lieu of official accommodation for the CHRAJ boss, and on what basis was the said amount was determined?
Source: Daily Graphic (2014)
Approaches in Achieving Political Responsibility and Accountability
Out of the approaches in achieving political responsibility and accountability discussed in the literature, it can be seen that various approaches were explained to achieving political responsibility and accountability. In respect to political responsibility, Esquith (2013) indicated in the literature that there are positive political responsibility and negative political responsibility. The positive political responsibility approach ensures that the rule of law is achieved and the right things are done in the country. The positive approach to political responsibility creates good governance and this leads to socio-economic development in the country. It must be noted that in terms of the political responsibility approach that is most promising to the researcher is the positive political responsibility (Esquith 2013). It was revealed in the literature that state official with negative political responsibility are providing great disservice to the state (Neito 2009).
In the literature, several approaches to achieving political accountability were discussed. Moral/ethical and social accountability were indicated by Christie (2017) among the approaches in achieving political accountability. These approaches by Christie (2017) are seen by the researcher as the most promising because it explore the behavior for which one is morally responsible to. Being morally responsible for an act amounts to being accountable for that act. Moreover, being accountable demands being a moral interlocutor. This helps individuals to be part of the moral reasoning (Christie 2017).
Moral or ethical accountability enables an individual the ability to attend to, discuss answers to reasons for actions bearing moral weight.
Social accountability, on the other hand, measures an organizational state of being mindful of the arising social concerns and priorities of government and nongovernmental organizations. Social accountability focuses on the commitment of politicians or individuals in the society in the areas of their willingness to comply with the rules of law, complying with the development of the community and its environs (Christie 2017). More importantly, social accountability mechanisms ensure the political checks and balances, accounting and auditing systems, administrative rules and legal procedures that will help fight corruption and other malpractices which are known as politics without principles.
Real politicians operate with principles. Principles hinge on laws, universal truths, timeless precepts and have determinable consequences. Politicians with principles are not partial and do not indulge in what have been discussed in this study as malpractices. This entry has explained critically the politics without principles as indicated by Gandhi in his seven deadly social sins. It has been revealed in this study the politics without principles in developed countries and the developing countries. It has been explained in the study that politics without principles affect the socioeconomic development of Ghana and other African countries through corruption and bad leadership. The various approaches to achieving political responsibility and accountability have also been explained by the researcher in the study. It has been established in this study that the most promising approaches to achieving political responsibility and accountability are positive political responsibility, moral/ethical accountability, and social accountability. These approaches discussed in the study when implemented by governments in both developed and developing countries like Ghana will help ensure politics with principles.
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