Immigration policy in the European Union (EU) has been characterized by a tension between Europeanization and free-flow of citizens on one hand and the difficult internal context of member-states, informed by political realities and the identities of the nations themselves. This may be understood as led by elite discourse, which may be ineffective in accomplishing goals that serve the needs of at-risk migrants and asylum-seekers.
EU pressure upon member states in areas of immigration policy and its reform has found a strong offset in in-state policy considerations. Policy has stressed stronger external borders, yielding approaches that favor military and security measures (Butler 2018), migration within the EU as a security matter, and regulatory factors that observe “pull” of certain nations for migrants. The intent for Europeanization, “attributed to European integration” (Costello 2006, p....
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