• Luca MassimiEmail author
  • Souvik Kar
  • Mario Giordano
  • Helmut Bertalanffy
Living reference work entry


Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) have since long time been recognized as one of the most common vascular malformations of the central nervous system together with arteriovenous malformations, capillary telangiectasias, and venous angiomas. CMs were also described as occult vascular malformations because no abnormal vascularity is seen on angiography due to the absence of direct arterial input (Attar et al. 2001). The term “cavernous angioma” was first used by Russell and Rubinstein in their description of the pathology of brain lesions (Russell and Rubinstein 1989). CMs are also known as cavernous hemangioma, cavernous venous malformation, or simply cavernoma. The term “cavernous malformation” or “cavernoma” is usually preferred to the term “cavernous angioma” to distinguish CMs from the shunting-associated malformations or the vascular neoplasms (Patel et al. 2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Massimi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Souvik Kar
    • 2
  • Mario Giordano
    • 2
  • Helmut Bertalanffy
    • 2
  1. 1.Pediatric NeurosurgeryFondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCSRomeItaly
  2. 2.International Neuroscience Institute (INI)HannoverGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Concezio Di Rocco
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryInternational Neuroscience InstituteHannoverGermany

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