Advertisement

Neuromodulation

  • Benjamin DavidsonEmail author
  • George M. Ibrahim
  • James T. Rutka
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Pediatric neuromodulation is a rapidly growing field, focused on treating neurological disorders through modulating neurocircuitry. Through targeting nodes in aberrant neural circuits, minimally invasive procedures like transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation aim to rebalance circuit activity. These techniques are now being used diagnostically and therapeutically in pediatric dystonia, epilepsy, Tourette syndrome, attention deficit disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and hemiparesis. Although caution must be exercised when applying experimental techniques developed originally in adults, this field represents an exciting new avenue for treating otherwise refractory illness.

Keywords

DBS TMS tDCS Vagus nerve stimulation neuromodulation Neurocircuitry Dystonia Epilepsy Tourette Depression ADHD Autism Schizophrenia Hemiparesis 

References

  1. Ackermans L, Temel Y, Visser-Vandewalle V (2008) Deep brain stimulation in Tourette's syndrome. Neurotherapeutics 5:339–344CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Albanese A, Bhatia K, Bressman SB, Delong MR, Fahn S, Fung VS, Hallett M, Jankovic J, Jinnah HA, Klein C, Lang AE, Mink JW, Teller JK (2013) Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update. Mov Disord 28:863–873CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Alterman RL, Tagliati M (2007) Deep brain stimulation for torsion dystonia in children. Childs Nerv Syst 23:1033–1040CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade P, Visser-Vandewalle V (2016) DBS in Tourette syndrome: where are we standing now? J Neural Transm (Vienna) 123:791–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnsten AF, Dudley AG (2005) Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: relevance to therapeutic effects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Funct 1:2CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.)Google Scholar
  7. Badawy R, Macdonell R, Jackson G, Berkovic S (2009) The peri-ictal state: cortical excitability changes within 24 h of a seizure. Brain 132:1013–1021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Badawy RA, Macdonell RA, Berkovic SF, Newton MR, Jackson GD (2010) Predicting seizure control: cortical excitability and antiepileptic medication. Ann Neurol 67:64–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bajbouj M, Merkl A, Schlaepfer TE, Frick C, Zobel A, Maier W, O'Keane V, Corcoran C, Adolfsson R, Trimble M, Rau H, Hoff HJ, Padberg F, Muller-Siecheneder F, Audenaert K, van den Abbeele D, Matthews K, Christmas D, Eljamel S, Heuser I (2010) Two-year outcome of vagus nerve stimulation in treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol 30:273–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldermann JC, Schuller T, Huys D, Becker I, Timmermann L, Jessen F, Visser-Vandewalle V, Kuhn J (2016) Deep brain stimulation for Tourette-syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Stimul 9:296–304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K (2002) The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 111:279–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker H, Muller-Vahl H (2008) Nonrecognized subarachnoid hemorrhage in contrast-enhanced CT. [German]. Clin Neuroradiol 18:244–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bedard AC, Newcorn JH, Clerkin SM, Krone B, Fan J, Halperin JM, Schulz KP (2014) Reduced prefrontal efficiency for visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 53:1020–30 e6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergey GK, Morrell MJ, Mizrahi EM, Goldman A, King-Stephens D, Nair D, Srinivasan S, Jobst B, Gross RE, Shields DC, Barkley G, Salanova V, Olejniczak P, Cole A, Cash SS, Noe K, Wharen R, Worrell G, Murro AM, Edwards J, Duchowny M, Spencer D, Smith M, Geller E, Gwinn R, Skidmore C, Eisenschenk S, Berg M, Heck C, Van Ness P, Fountain N, Rutecki P, Massey A, O'Donovan C, Labar D, Duckrow RB, Hirsch LJ, Courtney T, Sun FT, Seale CG (2015) Long-term treatment with responsive brain stimulation in adults with refractory partial seizures. Neurology 84:810–817CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Biederman J, Faraone SV (2005) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 366:237–248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloch Y, Harel EV, Aviram S, Govezensky J, Ratzoni G, Levkovitz Y (2010) Positive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on attention in ADHD subjects: a randomized controlled pilot study. World J Biol Psychiatry 11:755–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bourzac K (2016) Neurostimulation: bright sparks. Nature 531:S6–S8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Buchmann J, Gierow W, Weber S, Hoeppner J, Klauer T, Wittstock M, Benecke R, Haessler F, Wolters A (2006) Modulation of transcallosally mediated motor inhibition in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by medication with methylphenidate (MPH). Neurosci Lett 405:14–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cachoeira CT, Leffa DT, Mittelstadt SD, Mendes LST, Brunoni AR, Pinto JV, Blazius V, Machado V, Bau CHD, Rohde LA, Grevet EH, Schestatsky P (2017) Positive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a pilot randomized controlled study. Psychiatry Res 247:28–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Canaz H, Karalok I, Topcular B, Agaoglu M, Yapici Z, Aydin S (2018) DBS in pediatric patients: institutional experience. Childs Nerv Syst 34:1771–1776CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheng B, Braass H, Ganos C, Treszl A, Biermann-Ruben K, Hummel FC, Muller-Vahl K, Schnitzler A, Gerloff C, Munchau A, Thomalla G (2014) Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Neuroimage Clin 4:174–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chiramberro M, Lindberg N, Isometsa E, Kahkonen S, Appelberg B (2013) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induced seizures in an adolescent patient with major depression: a case report. Brain Stimul 6:830–831CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Christakou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2004) Prefrontal cortical-ventral striatal interactions involved in affective modulation of attentional performance: implications for corticostriatal circuit function. J Neurosci 24:773–780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cif L, Coubes P (2017) Historical developments in children's deep brain stimulation. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 21:109–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper IS (1959) Chemopallidectomy and chemothalamectomy for parkinsonism and dystonia. Proc R Soc Med 52:47–60PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Coubes P, Echenne B, Roubertie A, Vayssiere N, Tuffery S, Humbertclaude V, Cambonie G, Claustres M, Frerebeau P (1999) Treatment of early-onset generalized dystonia by chronic bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus. Apropos of a case. Neurochirurgie 45:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cretaz E, Brunoni AR, Lafer B (2015) Magnetic seizure therapy for unipolar and bipolar depression: a systematic review. Neural Plast 2015:521398CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Croarkin PE, Rotenberg A (2016) Pediatric neuromodulation comes of age. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 26:578–581CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Croarkin PE, Wall CA, McClintock SM, Kozel FA, Husain MM, Sampson SM (2010) The emerging role for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in optimizing the treatment of adolescent depression. J ECT 26:323–329CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Cukiert A, Cukiert CM, Burattini JA, Mariani PP, Bezerra DF (2017) Seizure outcome after hippocampal deep brain stimulation in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy: a prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Epilepsia 58:1728–1733CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. D'Agati D, Bloch Y, Levkovitz Y, Reti I (2010) rTMS for adolescents: safety and efficacy considerations. Psychiatry Res 177:280–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Davidson B, Elkaim L, Lipsman N, Ibrahim N (2018) An ethical framework for deep brain stimulation in children. Neurosurg Focus 45:E11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Deeb W, Rossi PJ, Porta M, Visser-Vandewalle V, Servello D, Silburn P, Coyne T, Leckman JF, Foltynie T, Hariz M, Joyce EM, Zrinzo L, Kefalopoulou Z, Welter ML, Karachi C, Mallet L, Houeto JL, Shahed-Jimenez J, Meng FG, Klassen BT, Mogilner AY, Pourfar MH, Kuhn J, Ackermans L, Kaido T, Temel Y, Gross RE, Walker HC, Lozano AM, Khandhar SM, Walter BL, Walter E, Mari Z, Changizi BK, Moro E, Baldermann JC, Huys D, Zauber SE, Schrock LE, Zhang JG, Hu W, Foote KD, Rizer K, Mink JW, Woods DW, Gunduz A, Okun MS (2016) The international deep brain stimulation registry and database for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: how does it work? Front Neurosci 10:170CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Deng Z, Pan Y, Zhang C, Zhang J, Qiu X, Zhan S, Li D, Sun B (2018) Subthalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with primary dystonia: a ten-year follow-up study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 55:103–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Elkaim LM, De Vloo P, Kalia SK, Lozano AM, Ibrahim GM (2018) Deep brain stimulation for childhood dystonia: current evidence and emerging practice. Expert Rev Neurother 18:773–784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Elliott RE, Morsi A, Tanweer O, Grobelny B, Geller E, Carlson C, Devinsky O, Doyle WK (2011a) Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation over time: review of 65 consecutive patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy treated with VNS > 10 years. Epilepsy Behav 20:478–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Elliott RE, Rodgers SD, Bassani L, Morsi A, Geller EB, Carlson C, Devinsky O, Doyle WK (2011b) Vagus nerve stimulation for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy: a consecutive series of 141 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:491–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eltahawy HA, Saint-Cyr J, Giladi N, Lang AE, Lozano AM (2004) Primary dystonia is more responsive than secondary dystonia to pallidal interventions: outcome after pallidotomy or pallidal deep brain stimulation. Neurosurgery 54:613–619. discussion 19-21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Enticott PG, Kennedy HA, Zangen A, Fitzgerald PB (2011) Deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation associated with improved social functioning in a young woman with an autism spectrum disorder. J ECT 27:41–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fisher R, Salanova V, Witt T, Worth R, Henry T, Gross R, Oommen K, Osorio I, Nazzaro J, Labar D, Kaplitt M, Sperling M, Sandok E, Neal J, Handforth A, Stern J, DeSalles A, Chung S, Shetter A, Bergen D, Bakay R, Henderson J, French J, Baltuch G, Rosenfeld W, Youkilis A, Marks W, Garcia P, Barbaro N, Fountain N, Bazil C, Goodman R, McKhann G, Babu Krishnamurthy K, Papavassiliou S, Epstein C, Pollard J, Tonder L, Grebin J, Coffey R, Graves N, Sante Study Group (2010) Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of thalamus for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia 51:899–908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilbert DL, Isaacs KM, Augusta M, Macneil LK, Mostofsky SH (2011) Motor cortex inhibition: a marker of ADHD behavior and motor development in children. Neurology 76:615–621CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Gillick BT, Krach LE, Feyma T, Rich TL, Moberg K, Thomas W, Cassidy JM, Menk J, Carey JR (2014) Primed low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy in pediatric hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 56:44–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gillick BT, Krach LE, Feyma T, Rich TL, Moberg K, Menk J, Cassidy J, Kimberley T, Carey JR (2015) Safety of primed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and modified constraint-induced movement therapy in a randomized controlled trial in pediatric hemiparesis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 96:S104–S113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gil-Robles S, Cif L, Biolsi B, Tancu C, El Fertit H, Coubes P (2006) Neurosurgical treatment in childhood dystonias and dyskinesias. Rev Neurol 43(Suppl 1):S169–S172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gomes JS, Trevizol AP, Ducos DV, Gadelha A, Ortiz BB, Fonseca AO, Akiba HT, Azevedo CC, Guimaraes LSP, Shiozawa P, Cordeiro Q, Lacerda A, Dias AM (2018) Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a phase II randomized sham-controlled trial. Schizophr Res Cogn 12:20–28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Grazzi L, Egeo G, Liebler E, Padovan AM, Barbanti P (2017) Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) as symptomatic treatment of migraine in young patients: a preliminary safety study. Neurol Sci 38:197–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Guleyupoglu B, Schestatsky P, Edwards D, Fregni F, Bikson M (2013) Classification of methods in transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations. J Neurosci Methods 219:297–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hachem LD, Wong SM, Ibrahim GM (2018) The vagus afferent network: emerging role in translational connectomics. Neurosurg Focus 45:E2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hallbook T, Lundgren J, Stjernqvist K, Blennow G, Stromblad LG, Rosen I (2005) Vagus nerve stimulation in 15 children with therapy resistant epilepsy; its impact on cognition, quality of life, behaviour and mood. Seizure 14:504–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hameed MQ, Dhamne SC, Gersner R, Kaye HL, Oberman LM, Pascual-Leone A, Rotenberg A (2017) Transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation in children. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 17:11CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Heck CN, King-Stephens D, Massey AD, Nair DR, Jobst BC, Barkley GL, Salanova V, Cole AJ, Smith MC, Gwinn RP, Skidmore C, Van Ness PC, Bergey GK, Park YD, Miller I, Geller E, Rutecki PA, Zimmerman R, Spencer DC, Goldman A, Edwards JC, Leiphart JW, Wharen RE, Fessler J, Fountain NB, Worrell GA, Gross RE, Eisenschenk S, Duckrow RB, Hirsch LJ, Bazil C, O'Donovan CA, Sun FT, Courtney TA, Seale CG, Morrell MJ (2014) Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: final results of the RNS system pivotal trial. Epilepsia 55:432–441CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Hu SH, Wang SS, Zhang MM, Wang JW, Hu JB, Huang ML, Wei N, Zhou WH, Qi HL, Xu WJ, Xu Y (2011) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced seizure of a patient with adolescent-onset depression: a case report and literature review. J Int Med Res 39:2039–2044CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hua Z, Guodong G, Qinchuan L, Yaqun Z, Qinfen W, Xuelian W (2003) Analysis of complications of radiofrequency pallidotomy. Neurosurgery 52:89–99. discussion 99-101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Huang YZ, Edwards MJ, Rounis E, Bhatia KP, Rothwell JC (2005) Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex. Neuron 45:201–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jobst BC, Kapur R, Barkley GL, Bazil CW, Berg MJ, Bergey GK, Boggs JG, Cash SS, Cole AJ, Duchowny MS, Duckrow RB, Edwards JC, Eisenschenk S, Fessler AJ, Fountain NB, Geller EB, Goldman AM, Goodman RR, Gross RE, Gwinn RP, Heck C, Herekar AA, Hirsch LJ, King-Stephens D, Labar DR, Marsh WR, Meador KJ, Miller I, Mizrahi EM, Murro AM, Nair DR, Noe KH, Olejniczak PW, Park YD, Rutecki P, Salanova V, Sheth RD, Skidmore C, Smith MC, Spencer DC, Srinivasan S, Tatum W, Van Ness P, Vossler DG, Wharen RE Jr, Worrell GA, Yoshor D, Zimmerman RS, Skarpaas TL, Morrell MJ (2017) Brain-responsive neurostimulation in patients with medically intractable seizures arising from eloquent and other neocortical areas. Epilepsia 58:1005–1014CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Johnson RL, Wilson CG (2018) A review of vagus nerve stimulation as a therapeutic intervention. J Inflamm Res 11:203–213CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Kefalopoulou Z, Zrinzo L, Jahanshahi M, Candelario J, Milabo C, Beigi M, Akram H, Hyam J, Clayton J, Kass-Iliyya L, Silverdale M, Evans J, Limousin P, Hariz M, Joyce E, Foltynie T (2015) Bilateral globus pallidus stimulation for severe Tourette's syndrome: a double-blind, randomised crossover trial. Lancet Neurol 14:595–605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kirton A, Deveber G, Gunraj C, Chen R (2008) Neurocardiogenic syncope complicating pediatric transcranial magnetic stimulation. Pediatr Neurol 39:196–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kobayashi M, Pascual-Leone A (2003) Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neurology. Lancet Neurol 2:145–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kokoszka MA, Panov F, La Vega-Talbott M, McGoldrick PE, Wolf SM, Ghatan S (2018) Treatment of medically refractory seizures with responsive neurostimulation: 2 pediatric cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr 21:421–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Krahl SE, Clark KB (2012) Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a review of central mechanisms. Surg Neurol Int 3:S255–S259CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Krauss JK, Loher TJ, Weigel R, Capelle HH, Weber S, Burgunder JM (2003) Chronic stimulation of the globus pallidus internus for treatment of non-dYT1 generalized dystonia and choreoathetosis: 2-year follow up. J Neurosurg 98:785–792CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Krishnan C, Santos L, Peterson MD, Ehinger M (2015) Safety of noninvasive brain stimulation in children and adolescents. Brain Stimul 8:76–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumar R, Dagher A, Hutchison WD, Lang AE, Lozano AM (1999) Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation for generalized dystonia: clinical and PET investigation. Neurology 53:871–874CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kwan P, Brodie MJ (2000) Early identification of refractory epilepsy. N Engl J Med 342:314–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lin JP, Lumsden DE, Gimeno H, Kaminska M (2014) The impact and prognosis for dystonia in childhood including dystonic cerebral palsy: a clinical and demographic tertiary cohort study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:1239–1244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lipsman N, Ellis M, Lozano AM (2010) Current and future indications for deep brain stimulation in pediatric populations. Neurosurg Focus 29:E2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lisanby SH, Luber B, Schlaepfer TE, Sackeim HA (2003) Safety and feasibility of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) in major depression: randomized within-subject comparison with electroconvulsive therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1852–1865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lumsden DE, Kaminska M, Tomlin S, Lin JP (2016) Medication use in childhood dystonia. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 20:625–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Marks WA, Honeycutt J, Acosta F, Reed M (2009) Deep brain stimulation for pediatric movement disorders. Semin Pediatr Neurol 16:90–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Martinez-Ramirez D, Jimenez-Shahed J, Leckman JF, Porta M, Servello D, Meng FG, Kuhn J, Huys D, Baldermann JC, Foltynie T, Hariz MI, Joyce EM, Zrinzo L, Kefalopoulou Z, Silburn P, Coyne T, Mogilner AY, Pourfar MH, Khandhar SM, Auyeung M, Ostrem JL, Visser-Vandewalle V, Welter ML, Mallet L, Karachi C, Houeto JL, Klassen BT, Ackermans L, Kaido T, Temel Y, Gross RE, Walker HC, Lozano AM, Walter BL, Mari Z, Anderson WS, Changizi BK, Moro E, Zauber SE, Schrock LE, Zhang JG, Hu W, Rizer K, Monari EH, Foote KD, Malaty IA, Deeb W, Gunduz A, Okun MS (2018) Efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome: the international Tourette syndrome deep brain stimulation public database and registry. JAMA Neurol 75:353–359CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Mattai A, Miller R, Weisinger B, Greenstein D, Bakalar J, Tossell J, David C, Wassermann EM, Rapoport J, Gogtay N (2011) Tolerability of transcranial direct current stimulation in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Brain Stimul 4:275–280CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayer G, Aviram S, Walter G, Levkovitz Y, Bloch Y (2012) Long-term follow-up of adolescents with resistant depression treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. J ECT 28:84–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. McDonnell MN, Orekhov Y, Ziemann U (2006) The role of GABA(B) receptors in intracortical inhibition in the human motor cortex. Exp Brain Res 173:86–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Muller HHO, Moeller S, Lucke C, Lam AP, Braun N, Philipsen A (2018) Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and other augmentation strategies for therapy-resistant depression (TRD): review of the evidence and clinical advice for use. Front Neurosci 12:239CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Muszkat D, Polanczyk GV, Dias TG, Brunoni AR (2016) Transcranial direct current stimulation in child and adolescent psychiatry. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 26:590–597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Noda Y, Daskalakis ZJ, Downar J, Croarkin PE, Fitzgerald PB, Blumberger DM (2014) Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 10:2049–2055PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Oberman LM, Rotenberg A, Pascual-Leone A (2015) Use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 45:524–536CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Oberman LM, Enticott PG, Casanova MF, Rotenberg A, Pascual-Leone A, McCracken JT, TMS. in ASD Consensus Group (2016) Transcranial magnetic stimulation in autism spectrum disorder: challenges, promise, and roadmap for future research. Autism Res 9:184–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. O'Connor M, Brenninkmeyer C, Morgan A, Bloomingdale K, Thall M, Vasile R, Leone AP (2003) Relative effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy on mood and memory: a neurocognitive risk-benefit analysis. Cogn Behav Neurol 16:118–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Olaya JE, Christian E, Ferman D, Luc Q, Krieger MD, Sanger TD, Liker MA (2013) Deep brain stimulation in children and young adults with secondary dystonia: the Children's Hospital Los Angeles experience. Neurosurg Focus 35:E7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Pedapati EV, Gilbert DL, Erickson CA, Horn PS, Shaffer RC, Wink LK, Laue CS, Wu SW (2016) Abnormal cortical plasticity in youth with autism Spectrum disorder: a transcranial magnetic stimulation case-control pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 26:625–631CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Peterchev AV, Wagner TA, Miranda PC, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Lisanby SH, Pascual-Leone A, Bikson M (2012) Fundamentals of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation dose: definition, selection, and reporting practices. Brain Stimul 5:435–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pina-Fuentes D, Beudel M, Little S, van Zijl J, Elting JW, Oterdoom DLM, van Egmond ME, van Dijk JMC, Tijssen MAJ (2018) Toward adaptive deep brain stimulation for dystonia. Neurosurg Focus 45:E3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rich TL, Menk J, Krach LE, Feyma T, Gillick BT (2016) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation/behavioral intervention clinical trial: long-term follow-up of outcomes in congenital hemiparesis. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 26:598–605CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Roth Y, Amir A, Levkovitz Y, Zangen A (2007) Three-dimensional distribution of the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation using figure-8 and deep H-coils. J Clin Neurophysiol 24:31–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rubio B, Boes AD, Laganiere S, Rotenberg A, Jeurissen D, Pascual-Leone A (2016) Noninvasive brain stimulation in pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review. J Child Neurol 31:784–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Russ SA, Larson K, Halfon N (2012) A national profile of childhood epilepsy and seizure disorder. Pediatrics 129:256–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sackeim HA, Prudic J, Devanand DP, Nobler MS, Lisanby SH, Peyser S, Fitzsimons L, Moody BJ, Clark J (2000) A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bilateral and right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy at different stimulus intensities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:425–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Salanova V (2018) Deep brain stimulation for epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 88:21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Salanova V, Witt T, Worth R, Henry TR, Gross RE, Nazzaro JM, Labar D, Sperling MR, Sharan A, Sandok E, Handforth A, Stern JM, Chung S, Henderson JM, French J, Baltuch G, Rosenfeld WE, Garcia P, Barbaro NM, Fountain NB, Elias WJ, Goodman RR, Pollard JR, Troster AI, Irwin CP, Lambrecht K, Graves N, Fisher R, Sante Study Group (2015) Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Neurology 84:1017–1025CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Schrock LE, Mink JW, Woods DW, Porta M, Servello D, Visser-Vandewalle V, Silburn PA, Foltynie T, Walker HC, Shahed-Jimenez J, Savica R, Klassen BT, Machado AG, Foote KD, Zhang JG, Hu W, Ackermans L, Temel Y, Mari Z, Changizi BK, Lozano A, Auyeung M, Kaido T, Agid Y, Welter ML, Khandhar SM, Mogilner AY, Pourfar MH, Walter BL, Juncos JL, Gross RE, Kuhn J, Leckman JF, Neimat JA, Okun MS, Database Tourette Syndrome Association International Deep Brain Stimulation, Group Registry Study (2015) Tourette syndrome deep brain stimulation: a review and updated recommendations. Mov Disord 30:448–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Servello D, Porta M, Sassi M, Brambilla A, Robertson MM (2008) Deep brain stimulation in 18 patients with severe Gilles de la Tourette syndrome refractory to treatment: the surgery and stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:136–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Servello D, Sassi M, Gaeta M, Ricci C, Porta M (2011) Tourette syndrome (TS) bears a higher rate of inflammatory complications at the implanted hardware in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Acta Neurochir 153:629–632CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Soff C, Sotnikova A, Christiansen H, Becker K, Siniatchkin M (2017) Transcranial direct current stimulation improves clinical symptoms in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 124:133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sokhadze EM, El-Baz A, Baruth J, Mathai G, Sears L, Casanova MF (2009) Effects of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on gamma frequency oscillations and event-related potentials during processing of illusory figures in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 39:619–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Son BC, Shon YM, Choi JG, Kim J, Ha SW, Kim SH, Lee SH (2016) Clinical outcome of patients with deep brain stimulation of the Centromedian thalamic nucleus for refractory epilepsy and location of the active contacts. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 94:187–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsering D, Tochen L, Lavenstein B, Reddy SK, Granader Y, Keating RF, Oluigbo CO (2017) Considerations in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for pediatric secondary dystonia. Childs Nerv Syst 33:631–637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Valentin A, Selway RP, Amarouche M, Mundil N, Ughratdar I, Ayoubian L, Martin-Lopez D, Kazi F, Dar T, Jimenez-Jimenez D, Hughes E, Alarcon G (2017) Intracranial stimulation for children with epilepsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 21:223–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Velasco F, Velasco M, Jimenez F, Velasco AL, Brito F, Rise M, Carrillo-Ruiz JD (2000) Predictors in the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures by electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus. Neurosurgery 47:295–304. discussion 04-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Vidailhet M, Vercueil L, Houeto JL, Krystkowiak P, Benabid AL, Cornu P, Lagrange C, Tezenas du Montcel S, Dormont D, Grand S, Blond S, Detante O, Pillon B, Ardouin C, Agid Y, Destee A, Pollak P, Group French Stimulation du Pallidum Interne dans la Dystonie Study (2005) Bilateral deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus in primary generalized dystonia. N Engl J Med 352:459–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Vidailhet M, Vercueil L, Houeto JL, Krystkowiak P, Lagrange C, Yelnik J, Bardinet E, Benabid AL, Navarro S, Dormont D, Grand S, Blond S, Ardouin C, Pillon B, Dujardin K, Hahn-Barma V, Agid Y, Destee A, Pollak P, Spidy Study Group French (2007) Bilateral, pallidal, deep-brain stimulation in primary generalised dystonia: a prospective 3 year follow-up study. Lancet Neurol 6:223–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wall CA, Croarkin PE, McClintock SM, Murphy LL, Bandel LA, Sim LA, Sampson SM (2013) Neurocognitive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in adolescents with major depressive disorder. Front Psych 4:165Google Scholar
  104. Wall CA, Croarkin PE, Maroney-Smith MJ, Haugen LM, Baruth JM, Frye MA, Sampson SM, Port JD (2016) Magnetic resonance imaging-guided, open-label, high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for adolescents with major depressive disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 26:582–589CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Weaver L, Rostain AL, Mace W, Akhtar U, Moss E, O'Reardon JP (2012) Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: a pilot study. J ECT 28:98–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wheless JW, Gienapp AJ, Ryvlin P (2018) Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy update. Epilepsy Behav 88:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wu SW, Gilbert DL, Shahana N, Huddleston DA, Mostofsky SH (2012) Transcranial magnetic stimulation measures in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol 47:177–185CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Yundt KD, Park TS, Kaufman BA (1997) Normal diameter of filum terminale in children: in vivo measurement. Pediatr Neurosurg 27:257–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhou C, Zhang H, Qin Y, Tian T, Xu B, Chen J, Zhou X, Zeng L, Fang L, Qi X, Lian B, Wang H, Hu Z, Xie P (2018) A systematic review and meta-analysis of deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 82:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Davidson
    • 1
    Email author
  • George M. Ibrahim
    • 1
    • 2
  • James T. Rutka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children Research InstituteUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • James Rutka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.NeurosurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research CentreThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations