• Benjamin DavidsonEmail author
  • George M. Ibrahim
  • James T. Rutka
Living reference work entry


Pediatric neuromodulation is a rapidly growing field, focused on treating neurological disorders through modulating neurocircuitry. Through targeting nodes in aberrant neural circuits, minimally invasive procedures like transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation aim to rebalance circuit activity. These techniques are now being used diagnostically and therapeutically in pediatric dystonia, epilepsy, Tourette syndrome, attention deficit disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and hemiparesis. Although caution must be exercised when applying experimental techniques developed originally in adults, this field represents an exciting new avenue for treating otherwise refractory illness.


DBS TMS tDCS Vagus nerve stimulation neuromodulation Neurocircuitry Dystonia Epilepsy Tourette Depression ADHD Autism Schizophrenia Hemiparesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Davidson
    • 1
    Email author
  • George M. Ibrahim
    • 1
    • 2
  • James T. Rutka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children Research InstituteUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • James Rutka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.NeurosurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research CentreThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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