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Hypertension in Oncology and Stem-Cell Transplant Patients

  • Benjamin L. LaskinEmail author
  • Sangeeta R. Hingorani
Reference work entry

Abstract

Hypertension is common in children with cancer, especially among those receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Elevations in blood pressure can be related to chemotherapy, total body and abdominal radiation, nephrectomy, corticosteroids, excess fluid and salt intake, and calcineurin inhibitor use. Careful attention to the measurement of blood pressure in children with cancer aids in the diagnosis and management of acute complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy. Pediatric cancer survivors are at significant risk for developing diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension. Hypertension independently contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in this population. Evidence is needed on the optimal treatment for children with hypertension and cancer, including the potential benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and angiotensin receptor blockers in those with concomitant albuminuria and chronic kidney disease. Decreasing the risk of hypertension and its associated complications will improve the health and survival of children treated for cancer and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

Keywords

Pediatric hypertension Pediatric cancer Hematopoietic stem cell transplant 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NephrologyThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

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