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Hypertension in the Developing World

Epidemiologic Transition and Health Statistics in Developing Countries
  • Vera H. KochEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Hypertension is a major global chronic noncommunicable disease (NCD). Due to epidemiologic shifts, the absolute numbers of patients affected by hypertension in low- and middle-income countries are likely to grow, as increased globalization and economic improvement lead to urbanization and longer life expectancy. Increasing longevity provides longer periods of exposure to the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), resulting in a greater probability of clinically manifesting CVD events. Compounding this high burden of hypertension is a lack of awareness and insufficient treatment in those with hypertension. Additionally, survivors of an economic transition period are more likely to present the phenotype of lower birth weight coupled with either stunting or a higher body mass index in childhood or adulthood, which appears to be associated with the highest risks of morbid cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic outcomes into adulthood. The combination of population-wide and individual interventions may save millions of lives and considerably reduce human suffering from NCDs.

Keywords

Hypertension Developing world Noncommunicable diseases Global disease burden Epidemiological transition Fetal origins of adult disease Malnutrition Low birth weight 

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology Unit Instituto da Criança Hospital das ClinicasUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

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