Advertisement

Neonatology pp 2391-2425 | Cite as

Neonatal Skin Disorders

  • Michele Fimiani
  • Roberta Bilenchi
  • Filomena Mandato
  • Stefania Mei
  • Niccolò Nami
  • Rosa Maria Strangi
  • Arianna Lamberti
Reference work entry

Abstract

Skin is a dynamic complex organ, which accomplishes versatile functions and thus plays a key role in the maintenance of the homeostasis of the organism. At birth, the development of the skin is not fully complete. The beginning of the postnatal life is a period for active adaptation and maturation of the cutaneous structure and functions. The environment around the skin changes drastically after birth: a newborn infant goes from the warm, wet, sterile, and safe womb to a cooler, dry, bacteria-laden nursery; concurrently the baby begins the journey to self-sufficiency by breathing air, taking nutrition, and maintaining body temperature. Newborn skin is critical to this transition and performs many functions (barrier to water loss, light, and irritants; infection control and immunosurveillance; resilience to mechanical trauma; sensation and tactile discrimination; thermal regulation; and acid mantle formation).

A variety of normal and abnormal lesions may be present on newborn skin surface (including adnexa, oral mucosa, and genito-anal area). Although these findings are often benign, it is important to distinguish them and to be aware about the nature of the disease, to manage them properly.

References

  1. Abass K, Saad H, Kherala M, Abd-Elsayed AA (2008) Successful treatment of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome with vincristine and surgery: a case report and review of literature. Cases J 1:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akin C, Valent P (2014) Diagnostic criteria and classification of mastocytosis in 2014. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am 34(2):207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aloulou H, Chaari W, Khanfir S et al (2008) Aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp (5 observations). Arch Pediatr 15:382–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alper JC (1986) The genodermatoses and their significance in pediatric dermatology. Pediatr Dermatol Clin 4:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babu NA, Rajesh E, Krupaa J, Gnananandar G (2015) Genodermatoses. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 7(1):S203–S206PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Batta K (2000) Management of large birthmarks. Semin Neonatol 5:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bedocs PM, Kumar V, Mahon MJ (2009) Pemphigoid gestationis: a rare case and review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 279:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bethel J (2014) Identification and treatment of scabies in infants. Emerg Nurse 22(4):24–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloom DC, Perkins JA, Manning SC (2004) Management of lymphatic malformations. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 12:500–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boralevi F, Diallo A, Miquel J, Guerin-Moreau M, Bessis D, Chiavérini C, Plantin P, Hubiche T, Maruani A, Lassalle M, Boursault L, Ezzedine K, Groupe de Recherche Clinique en Dermatologie Pédiatrique (2014) Clinical phenotype of scabies by age. Pediatrics 133(4):e910–e916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burkhead A, Poindexter G, Morrell DS (2009) A case of extensive aplasia cutis congenita with underlying skull defect and central nervous system malformation: discussion of large skin defects, complications, treatment and outcome. J Perinatol 29:582–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burstein F, Seier H, Hudgins PA, Zapiach L (2005) Neurocutaneous melanosis. J Craniofac Surg 16:874–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ch’ng S, Tan ST (2008) Facial port-wine stains – clinical stratification and risks of neuro-ocular involvement. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 61:889–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang JT, Chiu PC, Chen YY et al (2008) Multiple clinical manifestations and diagnostic challenges of incontinentia pigmenti-12 years’ experience in a medical center. J Chin Med Assoc 71:455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohn MS, Mahon MJ (1994) Telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. J Am Osteopath Assoc 94:246–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Courjon J, Hubiche T, Phan A, Tristan A, Bès M, Vandenesch F, Etienne J, Del Giudice P, Gillet Y (2013) Skin findings of Staphylococcus aureus toxin-mediated infection in relation to toxin encoding genes. Pediatr Infect Dis J 32(7):727–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curatolo P, Bombardieri R, Jozwiak S (2008) Tuberous sclerosis. Lancet 372:657–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Das JK, Sengupta S, Gangopadhyay A (2009) Pachyonychia congenita type 2. Indian J Adv Dermatol Venereol Leprol 75:321–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Denoyelle F, Leboulanger N, Enjolras O et al (2009) Role of propranolol in the therapeutic strategy of infantile laryngotracheal hemangioma. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:1168–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dhar S, Banerjee R, Malakar R (2012) Neonatal erythroderma: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Indian J Dermatol 57(6):475–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fine JD, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Eady RA et al (2014) Inherited epidermolysis bullosa: updated recommendations on diagnosis and classification. J Am Acad Dermatol 70(6):1103–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fistarol SK, Itin PH (2002) Nail changes in genodermatoses. Eur J Dermatol 12:119–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Freeman AF, Holland SM (2009) Clinical manifestations, etiology, and pathogenesis of the hyper-IgE syndromes. Pediatr Res 65:32R–37RCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freeman AF, Domingo DL, Holland SM (2009) Hyper IgE (Job’s) syndrome: a primary immune deficiency with oral manifestations. Oral Dis 15:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghosh S (2015) Neonatal pustular dermatosis: an overview. Indian J Dermatol 60(2):211PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldfarb CA, Sathienkijkanchai A, Robin NH (2009) Amniotic constriction band: a multidisciplinary assessment of etiology and clinical presentation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 91:S68–S75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gómez-Lado C, Eirís-Puñal J, Blanco-Barca O et al (2004) Hypomelanosis of Ito. A possibly under-diagnosed heterogeneous neurocutaneous syndrome. Rev Neurol 38:223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenberg RG, Benjamin DK Jr (2014) Neonatal candidiasis: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. J Infect 69(Suppl (1)):S19–S22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gross U, Hoffmann GF, Doss MO (2000) Erythropoietic and hepatic porphyrias. J Inherit Metab Dis 23:641–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gushi M, Yamamoto Y, Mine Y et al (2008) Neonatal pemphigus vulgaris. J Dermatol 35:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Happle R (2006) X-chromosome inactivation: role in skin disease expression. Acta Paediatr Suppl 95:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harrison-Balestra C, Gugic D, Vincek V et al (2007) Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work. J Dermatol 34:178–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Has C, Kiritsi D (2015) Therapies for inherited skin fragility disorders. Exp Dermatol 24(5):325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hennedige AA, Quaba AA, Al-Nakib K (2008) Sturge-Weber syndrome and dermatomal facial port-wine stains: incidence, association with glaucoma, and pulsed tunable dye laser treatment effectiveness. Plast Reconstr Surg 121:1173–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hersh JH (2008) Health supervision for children with neurofibromatosis. American Academy of pediatrics committee on genetics. Pediatrics 121:633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoeger PH, Harper JI (1998) Neonatal erythroderma: differential diagnosis and management of the “red baby”. Arch Dis Child 79:186–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hull S, Arno G, Thomson P et al (2015) Somatic mosaicism of a novel IKBKG mutation in a male patient with incontinentia pigmenti. Am J Med Genet A 167(7):1601–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Inzinger M, Salmhofer W, Binder B (2012) Neonatal lupus erythematosus and its clinical variability. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 10(6):407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. James SH, Kimberlin DW (2015) Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment. Clin Perinatol 42(1):47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Januário G, Salgado M (2011) The Harlequin phenomenon. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 25(12):1381–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karim Z, Lyoumi S, Nicolas G et al (2015) Porphyrias: a 2015 update. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 39(4):412–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Katugampola RP, Anstey AV, Finlay AY et al (2012) A management algorithm for congenital erythropoietic porphyria derived from a study of 29 cases. Br J Dermatol 167(4):888–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kilborn TN, Teh J, Goodman TR (2003) Paediatric manifestation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a review of clinical and radiological findings. Clin Radiol 58:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Koch BL (2005) Cystic malformations of the neck in children. Pediatr Radiol 35:463–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krengel S, Hauschild A, Schäfer T (2006) Melanoma risk in congenital melanocytic naevi: a systematic review. Br J Dermatol 155:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kucinskiene V, Sutkute A, Valiukeviciene S (2014) Cutaneous fungal infection in a neonatal intensive care unit patient: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Dermatol 31(3):267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kwak J, Lamprecht C (2015) A review of the guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of congenital syphilis. Pediatr Ann 44(5):e108–e114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lakdawala N, Grant-Kels JM (2015) Acrodermatitis enteropathica and other nutritional diseases of the folds (intertriginous areas). Clin Dermatol 33(4):414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lenane P, Pope E, Krafchik B (2005) Congenital alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 52:S8–S11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lichon V, Khachemoune A (2007) Xeroderma pigmentosum: beyond skin cancer. J Drugs Dermatol 6:281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lorente Lavirgen AI, Bernabeu-Wittel J, Dominguez-Cruz J, Conejo-Mir J (2012) Neonatal pemphigus foliaceus. J Pediatr 161(4):768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mallory SB (1991) Neonatal skin disorders. Pediatr Clin N Am 38:745–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mancini AJ, Sookdeo-Drost S, Madison KC et al (1994) Semipermeable dressings improve epidermal barrier function in premature infants. Pediatr Res 36:306–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Méni C, Bruneau J, Georgin-Lavialle S et al (2015) Paediatric mastocytosis: a systematic review of 1747 cases. Br J Dermatol 172(3):642–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meurer M (2009) Pemphigus diseases in children and adolescents. Hautarzt 60:208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Minić S, Trpinac D, Obradović M (2014) Incontinentia pigmenti diagnostic criteria update. Clin Genet 85(6):536–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Monteagudo B, Labandeira J, Cabanillas M, Acevedo A, Toribio J (2012) Prospective study of erythema toxicum neonatorum: epidemiology and predisposing factors. Pediatr Dermatol 29(2):166–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moure C, Reynaert G, Lehmman P et al (2007) Classification of vascular tumors and malformations: basis for classification and clinical purpose. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac 108:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson DL (2006) NEMO, NFkappaB signaling and incontinentia pigmenti. Curr Opin Genet Dev 16:282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neylon O, O’Connell NH, Slevin B, Powell J, Monahan R, Boyle L, Whyte D, Mannix M, McElligott F, Kearns AM, Philip RK (2010) Neonatal staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: clinical and outbreak containment review. Eur J Pediatr 169(12):1503–1509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ott H, Hütten M, Baron JM et al (2008) Neonatal and infantile erythrodermas. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 6(12):1070–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Panko J, Florell SR, Hadley J et al (2009) Neonatal pemphigus in an infant born to a mother with serologic evidence of both pemphigus vulgaris and gestational pemphigoid. J Am Acad Dermatol 60(6):1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Requena L (1992) Erythrodermic mastocytosis. Cutis 49:189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosa PA, Hirsch DL, Dierks EJ (2008) Congenital neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin N Am 20:339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ruiz-Maldonado R (2007) Hypomelanotic conditions of the newborn and infant. Dermatol Clin 25:373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sa J, Khachemoune A, Guldbakke KK (2007) Piebaldism: a case report and a concise review of the literature. Cutis 80:411–414Google Scholar
  67. Scheck O, Horny HP, Ruck P et al (1987) Solitary mastocytoma of the eyelid. A case report with special reference to the immunocytology of human tissue mast cells, and a review of the literature. Virchows Arch 412:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Serna-Tamayo C, Janniger CK, Micali G, Schwartz RA (2014) Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update. Cutis 94(1):13–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Simko SJ, Garmezy B, Abhyankar H et al (2014) Differentiating skin-limited and multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis. J Pediatr 165(5):990–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Singalavanija S, Limpongsanurak W, Aoongern S (2014) Neonatal lupus erythematosus: a 20-year retrospective study. J Med Assoc Thai 97(6):S74–S82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sinha S, Cohen PJ, Schwartz RA (2008) Nevus of Ota in children. Cutis 82:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Sket KV, Giachetti A, Sojo M, Garrido D, Lupo E, Brener P (2013) Congenital cutaneous candidiasis. Arch Argent Pediatr 111(6):556–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith CK, Arvin AM (2009) Varicella in the fetus and newborn. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 14:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smolinski KN, Yan AC (2005) Hemangiomas of infancy: clinical and biological characteristics. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 44:747–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Summers CG (2009) Albinism: classification, clinical characteristics, and recent findings. Optom Vis Sci 86:659–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Visscher MO, Adam R, Brink S, Odio M (2015) Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care. Clin Dermatol 33(3):271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wiechers T, Rabenhorst A, Schick T et al (2015) Large maculopapular cutaneous lesions are associated with favorable outcome in childhood-onset mastocytosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 136(6):1581–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yang B, Li L, Zhang LX et al (2015) Clinical characteristics and treatment options of infantile. Medicine 94(40):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Fimiani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roberta Bilenchi
    • 2
  • Filomena Mandato
    • 2
  • Stefania Mei
    • 2
  • Niccolò Nami
    • 2
  • Rosa Maria Strangi
    • 2
  • Arianna Lamberti
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Scienze Immunologiche – Sezione di DermatologiaUniversità degli Studi di Siena, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”SienaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, Dermatology SectionUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

Personalised recommendations