Neonatology pp 2339-2348 | Cite as

Ocular Malformations

  • Elena PiozziEmail author
  • Alessandra Del Longo
Reference work entry


Ocular malformations are numerous: some are already evident at birth or during the first few months of life, while others show themselves at a later stage.

Ocular malformations can be a sign of more complex and general pathologies, and the importance of early recognition should not be underestimated for those which can cause a damage to the vision and/or amblyopia (interruption of the development of the visual function).

Ocular malformations of the anterior segment are easily recognizable during examination, the ones of the posterior segment either are associated with the former or, more frequently, have as first symptom a constant or intermittent strabismus.

Differences in size, asymmetry, opening, and color between the two eyes should never be underestimated as they could be a sign of possible malformations.

The pediatrician is crucial and can help in a timely diagnosis of congenital eye pathologies and will recommend that the patient sees a specialist for further examination.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric OphthalmologyNiguarda Ca’ Granda HospitalMilanItaly

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