Neonatology pp 2201-2224 | Cite as

Cerebral Hemorrhage in Newborns

  • Linda S. de VriesEmail author
  • Axel Heep
Reference work entry


Hemorrhagic lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) occur during the fetal, perinatal, and postnatal period. Due to the timing of the hemorrhage and the vulnerability of the developing brain, hemorrhagic lesions are associated with specific morbidity and mortality.

Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is still a common and serious condition in premature infants. Especially a large GMH-IVH, often complicated by posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation or associated with a unilateral parenchymal hemorrhage, is associated with an increased risk of adverse neurologic sequelae.

The widespread use of cranial ultrasonography since the early 1980s has shown a gradual decrease in the incidence of GMH-IVH and has helped with the identification of risk factors and timing of the lesion. The increased use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has contributed to better define the site and extent of the lesion and to visualize associated white matter (WM) damage as well as associated cerebellar hemorrhages.

Hemorrhagic lesions of the CNS in the fetal period are associated with vascular malformation, thrombophilic disorders, and rarely brain malignancies. Perinatally acquired hemorrhagic CNS lesions in the full-term infant are associated with sinovenous thrombosis or traumatic parenchymal hemorrhage related to assisted vaginal deliveries.



Cerebrospinal fluid


Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis


Computed tomography


Cranial ultrasound


Developmental quotient


Drainage intervention fibrinolytic therapy


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation


Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage


Hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction


Inhaled nitric oxide


Intraparenchymal Lesion


Magnetic resonance imaging


Near-infrared spectroscopy


Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia


Periventricular hemorrhagic infarction


Periventricular leukomalacia


Platelet surface antigen


Posterior limb of the internal capsule


Posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation


Venous infarction




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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyWilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical CenterUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of NeonatologySouthmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS TrustBristolUK

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