Neonatology pp 1833-1891 | Cite as

Endocrine Diseases and Disorders of Thyroid Function in Newborns

  • Paolo GhirriEmail author
  • Antonio BalsamoEmail author
  • Massimiliano CiantelliEmail author
  • Paolo Cavarzere
  • Alessandro CicognaniEmail author
  • Antonio BoldriniEmail author
  • Alessandra CassioEmail author
Reference work entry


Congenital hypopituitarism results from a deficiency of any or all hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland or by the posterior pituitary gland. Reduced cortisol and/or aldosterone production may be the consequence of primary cortical adrenal insufficiency or damage; isolated cortisol insufficiency may be caused by pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction (ACTH or CRF deficiency). Neonatal hypoglycemia is frequent in neonates, especially in those of low birth weights. Hypoglycemia is usually transient and resolves in the first 72 h of life; symptoms are absent or nonspecific. Hyperglycemia may be due to impaired glucose homeostasis, iatrogenic causes, stress, and neonatal diabetes mellitus; it is often asymptomatic and secondary to other severe diseases.

Neonatal hypocalcemia affects 30% of very low birth weight infants. Clinical presentation is nonspecific and therapy may be by oral or intravenous supplementation. Hypercalcemia is defined as an ionized calcium concentration >1.36 mmol/L or total calcium concentration >2.75 mmol/L. Moderate to severe hypercalcemia requires prompt intervention.

Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in the neonatal age range, causing significant neurointellectual impairment. Plasma thyroid hormone levels are correlated to gestational age, and preterm infants have lower T3, T4, and FT4 values than term infants.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care UnitS. Chiara University HospitalPisaItaly
  2. 2.Pediatric Unit, Department of Mother and ChildUniversity Hospital of VeronaVeronaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Pediatric Endocrinology UnitS. Orsola-Malpighi University HospitalBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria PisanaPisaItaly
  5. 5.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care UnitSanta Chiara University HospitalPisaItaly
  6. 6.Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Pediatric Unit, Center for Rare Endocrine Diseases (CARENDO BO)S.Orsola Malpighi University HospitalBolognaItaly

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