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Neonatology pp 1727-1771 | Cite as

Neonatal Bacterial and Fungal Infections

  • Mauro Stronati
  • Alessandro Borghesi
Reference work entry

Abstract

Neonatal infection is the invasion of the tissue by an infectious organism during the neonatal age. This may be considered early-onset when occurring during the first 72 h of life and late-onset when occurring after the first 72 h of life. Reported rates of neonatal infections range from 6% to 33% and up to 40% in neonates born before 28 weeks’ gestational age or with birth weight <1,000 g. Septicemia accounts for 45–55% of all infections, followed by lower respiratory tract infections (16–30%) and urinary tract infections (8–18%). The most frequently isolated microorganisms are coagulase-negative Staphylococci, group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, other Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative microorganisms, and, among fungi, Candida albicans. Both early-onset and late-onset infections represent a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates. Prevention strategies for both early-onset and late-onset infection are available, including prevention of infection associated with premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor, prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease, and prevention of neonatal nosocomial infections.

Abbreviations

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

ACOG

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

AOM

Acute otitis media

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFU

Colony-forming unit

CI

Confidence interval

CONS

Coagulase-negative Staphylococci

CRP

C-reactive protein

CT

Computerized tomography

CVC

Central venous catheter

DMSA

Dimercaptosuccinic acid

EOS

Early-onset neonatal sepsis

GBS

Group B Streptococcus

G-CSF

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

HICPAC

Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee

IAP

Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis

Ig

Immune globulins

IL

Interleukin

IVG

Intravenous immune globulins

LOS

Late-onset neonatal sepsis

MIC

Minimal inhibiting concentration

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

NEC

Necrotizing enterocolitis

NICHD

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

NICU

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

NTED

Neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease

OR

Odds ratio

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PCT

Procalcitonin

PROM

Premature rupture of membranes

RCOG

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

rRNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid

RR

Relative risk

SAA

Serum amyloid A

SSSS

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

TEN

Toxic epidermal necrolysis

TSST-1

Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1

US

Ultrasound

UTI

Urinary tract infection

VAP

Ventilator-associated pneumonia

VLBW

Very low birth weight

VRE

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus

WHO

World Health Organization

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neonatal Intensive Care UnitFondazione IRCCS Policlinico ‘San Matteo’PaviaItaly

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