Advertisement

Neonatology pp 1575-1605 | Cite as

Fundamentals of Feto-Neonatal Immunology

  • Akhil Maheshwari
  • Edmund F. La Gamma
Reference work entry

Abstract

The immune system in the newborn infant is in a unique state of maturational flux that is distinct from all other periods of postnatal life. Faced with a continuous barrage of novel environmental antigens, the neonatal immune system must simultaneously protect the host from potentially harmful pathogens and, at the same time, learn to tolerate commensal microbes and dietary macromolecules and allow absorption and utilization of nutrients. While some components of the immune system perform at par with adults, the immaturity of the other branches results in a physiological, developmentally regulated immunodeficient state. The teleological significance of some of these alterations is still being elucidated. This chapter highlights the most prominent quantitative and qualitative differences in the innate and adaptive arms of the neonatal and adult immune systems and provides a brief overview of the developing mucosal immune system.

References

  1. Adamo L, Naveiras O, Wenzel PL, McKinney-Freeman S, Mack PJ, Gracia-Sancho J, Suchy-Dicey A, Yoshimoto M, Lensch MW, Yoder MC, Garcia-Cardena G, Daley GQ (2009) Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis. Nature 459:1131–1135PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams DH, Hathaway M, Shaw J, Burnett D, Elias E, Strain AJ (1991) Transforming growth factor-beta induces human T lymphocyte migration in vitro. J Immunol 147:609–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adkins B (2003) Peripheral CD4+ lymphocytes derived from fetal versus adult thymic precursors differ phenotypically and functionally. J Immunol 171:5157–5164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albanese CT, Smith SD, Watkins S, Kurkchubasche A, Simmons RL, Rowe MI (1994) Effect of secretory IgA on transepithelial passage of bacteria across the intact ileum in vitro. J Am Coll Surg 179:679–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alenghat E, Esterly JR (1984) Alveolar macrophages in perinatal infants. Pediatrics 74:221–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alugupalli KR, Leong JM, Woodland RT, Muramatsu M, Honjo T, Gerstein RM (2004) B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. Immunity 21:379–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ambruso DR, Bentwood B, Henson PM, Johnston RB Jr (1984) Oxidative metabolism of cord blood neutrophils: relationship to content and degranulation of cytoplasmic granules. Pediatr Res 18:1148–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson G, Moore NC, Owen JJ, Jenkinson EJ (1996) Cellular interactions in thymocyte development. Annu Rev Immunol 14:73–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andersson U (1985) Development of B lymphocyte function in childhood. Acta Paediatr Scand 74:568–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Antin JH, Emerson SG, Martin P, Gadol N, Ault KA (1986) Leu-1+ (CD5+) B cells. A major lymphoid subpopulation in human fetal spleen: phenotypic and functional studies. J Immunol 136:505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Araujo ED, Goncalves AK, Cornetta Mda C, Cunha H, Cardoso ML, Morais SS, Giraldo PC (2005) Evaluation of the secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the colostrum and milk of mothers of term and pre-trerm newborns. Braz J Infect Dis 9:357–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Artis D, Spits H (2015) The biology of innate lymphoid cells. Nature 517:293–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bagorda A, Mihaylov VA, Parent CA (2006) Chemotaxis: moving forward and holding on to the past. Thromb Haemost 95:12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ballow M, Cates KL, Rowe JC, Goetz C, Desbonnet C (1986) Development of the immune system in very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) premature infants: concentrations of plasma immunoglobulins and patterns of infections. Pediatr Res 20:899–904CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barrat FJ, Cua DJ, Boonstra A, Richards DF, Crain C, Savelkoul HF, de Waal-Malefyt R, Coffman RL, Hawrylowicz CM, O’Garra A (2002) In vitro generation of interleukin 10-producing regulatory CD4(+) T cells is induced by immunosuppressive drugs and inhibited by T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-inducing cytokines. J Exp Med 195:603–616PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnie PA, Lin X, Liu Y, Xu H, Su Z (2015) IL-17 producing innate lymphoid cells 3 (ILC3) but not Th17 cells might be the potential danger factor for preeclampsia and other pregnancy associated diseases. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 8:11100–11107Google Scholar
  17. Bauer K, Zemlin M, Hummel M, Pfeiffer S, Karstaedt J, Steinhauser G, Xiao X, Versmold H, Berek C (2002) Diversification of Ig heavy chain genes in human preterm neonates prematurely exposed to environmental antigens. J Immunol 169:1349–1356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bektas S, Goetze B, Speer CP (1990) Decreased adherence, chemotaxis and phagocytic activities of neutrophils from preterm neonates. Acta Paediatr Scand 79:1031–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benoit M, Desnues B, Mege JL (2008) Macrophage polarization in bacterial infections. J Immunol 181:3733–3739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bessler H, Sirota L, Dulitzky F, Djaldetti M (1987) Production of interleukin-1 by mononuclear cells of newborns and their mothers. Clin Exp Immunol 68:655–661PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhat NM, Kantor AB, Bieber MM, Stall AM, Herzenberg LA, Teng NN (1992) The ontogeny and functional characteristics of human B-1 (CD5+ B) cells. Int Immunol 4:243–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bhide SA, Wadekar KV, Koushik SA (2001) Peyer’s patches are precocious to the appendix in human development. Dev Immunol 8:159–166PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bhoopat L, Taylor CR, Hofman FM (1986) The differentiation antigens of macrophages in human fetal liver. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 41:184–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bishop GA, Hostager BS (2001) B lymphocyte activation by contact-mediated interactions with T lymphocytes. Curr Opin Immunol 13:278–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bjorkqvist M, Jurstrand M, Bodin L, Fredlund H, Schollin J (2004) Defective neutrophil oxidative burst in preterm newborns on exposure to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Pediatr Res 55:966–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bodey B, Kaiser HE (1997) Development of Hassall’s bodies of the thymus in humans and other vertebrates (especially mammals) under physiological and pathological conditions: immunocytochemical, electronmicroscopic and in vitro observations. In Vivo 11:61–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bofill M, Janossy G, Janossa M, Burford GD, Seymour GJ, Wernet P, Kelemen E (1985) Human B cell development. II. Subpopulations in the human fetus. J Immunol 134:1531–1538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Boismenu R, Havran WL (1994) Modulation of epithelial cell growth by intraepithelial gamma delta T cells. Science 266:1253–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bonati A, Zanelli P, Ferrari S, Plebani A, Starcich B, Savi M, Neri TM (1992) T-cell receptor beta-chain gene rearrangement and expression during human thymic ontogenesis. Blood 79:1472–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bondada S, Wu H, Robertson DA, Chelvarajan RL (2000) Accessory cell defect in unresponsiveness of neonates and aged to polysaccharide vaccines. Vaccine 19:557–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Borregaard N, Cowland JB (1997) Granules of the human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Blood 89:3503–3521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Boxer LA (2006) Severe congenital neutropenia: genetics and pathogenesis. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 117:13–31; discussion-2Google Scholar
  33. Braegger CP, Spencer J, MacDonald TT (1992) Ontogenetic aspects of the intestinal immune system in man. Int J Clin Lab Res 22:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brandtzaeg P, Nilssen DE, Rognum TO, Thrane PS (1991) Ontogeny of the mucosal immune system and IgA deficiency. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 20:397–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bryson YJ, Winter HS, Gard SE, Fischer TJ, Stiehm ER (1980) Deficiency of immune interferon production by leukocytes of normal newborns. Cell Immunol 55:191–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Buhl AM, Nemazee D, Cambier JC, Rickert R, Hertz M (2000) B-cell antigen receptor competence regulates B-lymphocyte selection and survival. Immunol Rev 176:141–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bulmer JN, Morrison L, Smith JC (1988) Expression of class II MHC gene products by macrophages in human uteroplacental tissue. Immunology 63:707–714PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Burgio GR, Lanzavecchia A, Plebani A, Jayakar S, Ugazio AG (1980) Ontogeny of secretory immunity: levels of secretory IgA and natural antibodies in saliva. Pediatr Res 14:1111–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cahill RN, Kimpton WG, Washington EA, Holder JE, Cunningham CP (1999) The ontogeny of T cell recirculation during foetal life. Semin Immunol 11:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cairo MS, Suen Y, Knoppel E, van de Ven C, Nguyen A, Sender L (1991) Decreased stimulated GM-CSF production and GM-CSF gene expression but normal numbers of GM-CSF receptors in human term newborns compared with adults. Pediatr Res 30:362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Carr R, Huizinga TW (2000) Low soluble FcRIII receptor demonstrates reduced neutrophil reserves in preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 83:F160PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carr R, Pumford D, Davies JM (1992) Neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion in preterm babies. Arch Dis Child 67:813–817PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Carreno MP, Gresham HD, Brown EJ (1993) Isolation of leukocyte response integrin: a novel RGD-binding protein involved in regulation of phagocytic function. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 69:43–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Casali P, Schettino EW (1996) Structure and function of natural antibodies. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 210:167–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cerf-Bensussan N, Guy-Grand D (1991) Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 20:549–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chang M, Suen Y, Lee SM, Baly D, Buzby JS, Knoppel E, Wolpe S, Cairo MS (1994) Transforming growth factor-beta 1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, and interleukin-8 gene expression is lower in stimulated human neonatal compared with adult mononuclear cells. Blood 84:118–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chen ZJ, Wheeler CJ, Shi W, Wu AJ, Yarboro CH, Gallagher M, Notkins AL (1998) Polyreactive antigen-binding B cells are the predominant cell type in the newborn B cell repertoire. Eur J Immunol 28:989–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chheda S, Palkowetz KH, Garofalo R, Rassin DK, Goldman AS (1996) Decreased interleukin-10 production by neonatal monocytes and T cells: relationship to decreased production and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors. Pediatr Res 40:475–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chidgey AP, Boyd RL (2001) Thymic stromal cells and positive selection. APMIS 109:481–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Choi Y, Rickert MH, Ballow M, Greenberg SJ (1995) Human IgH-V gene repertoire in neonatal cord blood, adult peripheral blood, and EBV-transformed cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 764:261–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Christensen RD (1987) Circulating pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells in neonates. J Pediatr 110:623–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Christensen RD, Harper TE, Rothstein G (1986) Granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in term and preterm neonates. J Pediatr 109:1047–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Clark RA (1999) Activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase. J Infect Dis 179(Suppl 2):S309–S317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Clerici M, DePalma L, Roilides E, Baker R, Shearer GM (1993) Analysis of T helper and antigen-presenting cell functions in cord blood and peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy children of different ages. J Clin Invest 91:2829–2836PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Collins AM, Sewell WA, Edwards MR (2003) Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, repertoire diversity, and the allergic response. Pharmacol Ther 100:157–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Collis AV, Brouwer AP, Martin AC (2003) Analysis of the antigen combining site: correlations between length and sequence composition of the hypervariable loops and the nature of the antigen. J Mol Biol 325:337–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cooper MD, Buckley RH (1982) Developmental immunology and the immunodeficiency diseases. JAMA 248:2658–2669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cornes JS (1965) Peyer’s patches in the human gut. Proc R Soc Med 58:716PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Crabbe PA, Nash DR, Bazin H, Eyssen H, Heremans JF (1970a) Immunohistochemical observations on lymphoid tissues from conventional and germ-free mice. Lab Invest 22:448–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Crabbe PA, Nash DR, Bazin H, Eyssen H, Heremans JF (1970b) Studies on the immunoglobulins of the mouse intestinal secretions. Prog Immunobiol Stand 4:308–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Cripps AW, Gleeson M, Clancy RL (1991) Ontogeny of the mucosal immune response in children. Adv Exp Med Biol 310:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. D’Ambola JB, Sherman MP, Tashkin DP, Gong H Jr (1988) Human and rabbit newborn lung macrophages have reduced anti-Candida activity. Pediatr Res 24:285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. D’Angio CT, Maniscalco WM, Pichichero ME (1995) Immunologic response of extremely premature infants to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio immunizations. Pediatrics 96:18–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Darrasse-Jeze G, Marodon G, Salomon BL, Catala M, Klatzmann D (2005) Ontogeny of CD4+CD25+ regulatory/suppressor T cells in human fetuses. Blood 105:4715–4721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Davis MM, Bjorkman PJ (1988) T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition. Nature 334:395–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. de Bont ES, Martens A, van Raan J, Samson G, Fetter WP, Okken A, de Leij LH (1993) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 plasma levels in neonatal sepsis. Pediatr Res 33:380–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Denning TL, Wang YC, Patel SR, Williams IR, Pulendran B (2007) Lamina propria macrophages and dendritic cells differentially induce regulatory and interleukin 17-producing T cell responses. Nat Immunol 8:1086–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Deorari AK, Broor S, Maitreyi RS, Agarwal D, Kumar H, Paul VK, Singh M (2000) Incidence, clinical spectrum, and outcome of intrauterine infections in neonates. J Trop Pediatr 46:155–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Dorshkind K, Montecino-Rodriguez E (2007) Fetal B-cell lymphopoiesis and the emergence of B-1-cell potential. Nat Rev Immunol 7:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Drossou V, Kanakoudi F, Tzimouli V, Sarafidis K, Taparkou A, Bougiouklis D, Petropoulou T, Kremenopoulos G (1997) Impact of prematurity, stress and sepsis on the neutrophil respiratory burst activity of neonates. Biol Neonate 72:201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Durandy A, Thuillier L, Forveille M, Fischer A (1990) Phenotypic and functional characteristics of human newborns’ B lymphocytes. J Immunol 144:60–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Edwards SW (1995) Cell signalling by integrins and immunoglobulin receptors in primed neutrophils. Trends Biochem Sci 20:362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Eisenfeld L, Krause PJ, Herson V, Savidakis J, Bannon P, Maderazo E, Woronick C, Giuliano C, Banco L (1990) Longitudinal study of neutrophil adherence and motility. J Pediatr 117:926–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Elsasser-Beile U, Dursunoglu B, Gallati H, Monting JS, von Kleist S (1995) Comparison of cytokine production in blood cell cultures of healthy children and adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 6:170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Elsbach P, Weiss J (1998) Role of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in host defence. Curr Opin Immunol 10:45–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Engle WA, Schreiner RL, Baehner RL (1983) Neonatal white blood cell disorders. Semin Perinatol 7:184–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Erkeller-Yuksel FM, Deneys V, Yuksel B, Hannet I, Hulstaert F, Hamilton C, Mackinnon H, Stokes LT, Munhyeshuli V, Vanlangendonck F et al (1992) Age-related changes in human blood lymphocyte subpopulations. J Pediatr 120:216–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Etzioni A, Obedeanu N, Blazer S, Benderly A, Merzbach D (1990) Effect of an intravenous gammaglobulin preparation on the opsonophagocytic activity of preterm serum against coagulase-negative staphylococci. Acta Paediatr Scand 79:156–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fagarasan S, Kinoshita K, Muramatsu M, Ikuta K, Honjo T (2001) In situ class switching and differentiation to IgA-producing cells in the gut lamina propria. Nature 413:639–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fichtelius KE (1968) The gut epithelium – a first level lymphoid organ? Exp Cell Res 49:87–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Finke D, Acha-Orbea H, Mattis A, Lipp M, Kraehenbuhl J (2002) CD4+CD3- cells induce Peyer’s patch development: role of alpha4beta1 integrin activation by CXCR5. Immunity 17:363–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Fitzsimmons SP, Evans MK, Pearce CL, Sheridan MJ, Wientzen R, Cole MF (1994) Immunoglobulin A subclasses in infants’ saliva and in saliva and milk from their mothers. J Pediatr 124:566–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Forsberg A, Bengtsson M, Eringfalt A, Ernerudh J, Mjosberg J, Jenmalm MC (2014) GATA binding protein 3(+) group 2 innate lymphoid cells are present in cord blood and in higher proportions in male than in female neonates. J Allergy Clin Immunol 134:228–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Foster CA, Holbrook KA, Farr AG (1986) Ontogeny of Langerhans cells in human embryonic and fetal skin: expression of HLA-DR and OKT-6 determinants. J Invest Dermatol 86:240–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fox SE, Lu W, Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (2005) The effects and comparative differences of neutrophil specific chemokines on neutrophil chemotaxis of the neonate. Cytokine 29:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Frascoli M, Jeanty C, Fleck S, Moradi PW, Keating S, Mattis AN, Tang Q, MacKenzie TC (2016) Heightened Immune activation in fetuses with gastroschisis may be blocked by targeting IL-5. J Immunol 196:4957–4966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gaddy J, Risdon G, Broxmeyer HE (1995) Cord blood natural killer cells are functionally and phenotypically immature but readily respond to interleukin-2 and interleukin-12. J Interferon Cytokine Res 15:527–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gahr M, Blanke R, Speer CP (1985) Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in term and preterm newborn infants. Biol Neonate 48:15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Garcia KC, Degano M, Speir JA, Wilson IA (1999) Emerging principles for T cell receptor recognition of antigen in cellular immunity. Rev Immunogenet 1:75–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Garderet L, Dulphy N, Douay C, Chalumeau N, Schaeffer V, Zilber MT, Lim A, Even J, Mooney N, Gelin C, Gluckman E, Charron D, Toubert A (1998) The umbilical cord blood alphabeta T-cell repertoire: characteristics of a polyclonal and naive but completely formed repertoire. Blood 91:340–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gathings WE, Lawton AR, Cooper MD (1977) Immunofluorescent studies of the development of pre-B cells, B lymphocytes and immunoglobulin isotype diversity in humans. Eur J Immunol 7:804–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gaunt G, Ramin K (2001) Immunological tolerance of the human fetus. Am J Perinatol 18:299–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gebbers JO, Laissue JA (2004) Bacterial translocation in the normal human appendix parallels the development of the local immune system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1029:337–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Geissmann F, Jung S, Littman DR (2003) Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Immunity 19:71–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. George JF Jr, Schroeder HW Jr (1992) Developmental regulation of D beta reading frame and junctional diversity in T cell receptor-beta transcripts from human thymus. J Immunol 148:1230–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gerli R, Bertotto A, Crupi S, Arcangeli C, Marinelli I, Spinozzi F, Cernetti C, Angelella P, Rambotti P (1989) Activation of cord T lymphocytes. I. Evidence for a defective T cell mitogenesis induced through the CD2 molecule. J Immunol 142:2583–2589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gerli R, Agea E, Muscat C, Tognellini R, Fiorucci G, Spinozzi F, Cernetti C, Bertotto A (1993) Activation of cord T lymphocytes. III. Role of LFA-1/ICAM-1 and CD2/LFA-3 adhesion molecules in CD3-induced proliferative response. Cell Immunol 148:32–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gill TJ 3rd, Repetti CF, Metlay LA, Rabin BS, Taylor FH, Thompson DS, Cortese AL (1983) Transplacental immunization of the human fetus to tetanus by immunization of the mother. J Clin Invest 72:987–996PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gleeson M, Cripps AW, Clancy RL, Husband AJ, Hensley MJ, Leeder SR (1982) Ontogeny of the secretory immune system in man. Aust N Z J Med 12:255–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Glover DM, Brownstein D, Burchett S, Larsen A, Wilson CB (1987) Expression of HLA class II antigens and secretion of interleukin-1 by monocytes and macrophages from adults and neonates. Immunology 61:195–201PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Golby S, Hackett M, Boursier L, Dunn-Walters D, Thiagamoorthy S, Spencer J (2002) B cell development and proliferation of mature B cells in human fetal intestine. J Leukoc Biol 72:279–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Goldman AS, Chheda S, Garofalo R (1998) Evolution of immunologic functions of the mammary gland and the postnatal development of immunity. Pediatr Res 43:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Golebiowska M, Kardas-Sobantka D, Chlebna-Sokol D, Sabanty W (1999) Hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 158:293–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Grage-Griebenow E, Flad HD, Ernst M (2001) Heterogeneity of human peripheral blood monocyte subsets. J Leukoc Biol 69:11–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Gromo G, Geller RL, Inverardi L, Bach FH (1987) Signal requirements in the step-wise functional maturation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature 327:424–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Grouard G, Rissoan MC, Filgueira L, Durand I, Banchereau J, Liu YJ (1997) The enigmatic plasmacytoid T cells develop into dendritic cells with interleukin (IL)-3 and CD40-ligand. J Exp Med 185:1101–1111PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Groux H, O’Garra A, Bigler M, Rouleau M, Antonenko S, de Vries JE, Roncarolo MG (1997) A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature 389:737–742CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Gunther U, Holloway JA, Gordon JN, Knight A, Chance V, Hanley NA, Wilson DI, French R, Spencer J, Steer H, Anderson G, MacDonald TT (2005) Phenotypic characterization of CD3-7+ cells in developing human intestine and an analysis of their ability to differentiate into T cells. J Immunol 174:5414–5422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Haas KM, Poe JC, Steeber DA, Tedder TF (2005) B-1a and B-1b cells exhibit distinct developmental requirements and have unique functional roles in innate and adaptive immunity to S. pneumoniae. Immunity 23:7–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hagendorens MM, Van Bever HP, Schuerwegh AJ, De Clerck LS, Bridts CH, Stevens WJ (2000) Determination of T-cell subpopulations and intracellular cytokine production (interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interferon-gamma) by cord blood T-lymphocytes of neonates from atopic and non-atopic parents. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 11:12–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hanson LA, Korotkova M (2002) The role of breastfeeding in prevention of neonatal infection. Semin Neonatol 7:275–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hanson LA, Ahlstedt S, Andersson B, Cruz JR, Dahlgren U, Fallstrom SP, Porras O, Svanborg Eden C, Soderstrom T, Wettergren B (1984) The immune response of the mammary gland and its significance for the neonate. Ann Allergy 53:576–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hardy RR (2006) B-1 B cell development. J Immunol 177:2749–2754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hardy RR, Hayakawa K (1991) A developmental switch in B lymphopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:11550–11554PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hardy RR, Hayakawa K (1994) CD5 B cells, a fetal B cell lineage. Adv Immunol 55:297–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Harvey J, Jones DB, Wright DH (1990) Differential expression of MHC- and macrophage-associated antigens in human fetal and postnatal small intestine. Immunology 69:409–415PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Hashimoto M, Nishida A, Minakami H, Takashima Y, Kato M, Okada Y, Ogawa Y, Itoh S, Kimura H (2002) Decreased expression of L-selectin on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes in neonates with severe asphyxia. Biol Neonate 81:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hassan J, Reen DJ (1993) Neonatal CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells: precursors of adult CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells? Res Immunol 144:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Haworth JC, Dilling L (1966) Concentration of gamma-A-globulin in serum, saliva, and nasopharyngeal secretions of infants and children. J Lab Clin Med 67:922–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hayes JA, Adamson-Macedo EN, Perera S, Anderson J (1999) Detection of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in saliva of ventilated and non-ventilated preterm neonates. Neuroendocrinol Lett 20:109–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Haynes BF (1984) The human thymic microenvironment. Adv Immunol 36:87–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Haynes BF, Martin ME, Kay HH, Kurtzberg J (1988) Early events in human T cell ontogeny. Phenotypic characterization and immunohistologic localization of T cell precursors in early human fetal tissues. J Exp Med 168:1061–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hazenberg MD, Verschuren MC, Hamann D, Miedema F, van Dongen JJ (2001) T cell receptor excision circles as markers for recent thymic emigrants: basic aspects, technical approach, and guidelines for interpretation. J Mol Med 79:631–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Heit B, Tavener S, Raharjo E, Kubes P (2002) An intracellular signaling hierarchy determines direction of migration in opposing chemotactic gradients. J Cell Biol 159:91–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Herberman RB, Djeu J, Kay HD, Ortaldo JR, Riccardi C, Bonnard GD, Holden HT, Fagnani R, Santoni A, Puccetti P (1979) Natural killer cells: characteristics and regulation of activity. Immunol Rev 44:43–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hobbs JR, Davis JA (1967) Serum gamma-G-globulin levels and gestational age in premature babies. Lancet 1:757–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Holt PG, Jones CA (2000) The development of the immune system during pregnancy and early life. Allergy 55:688–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Holtmeier W, Witthoft T, Hennemann A, Winter HS, Kagnoff MF (1997) The TCR-delta repertoire in human intestine undergoes characteristic changes during fetal to adult development. J Immunol 158:5632–5641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Holtmeier W, Pfander M, Hennemann A, Zollner TM, Kaufmann R, Caspary WF (2001) The TCR-delta repertoire in normal human skin is restricted and distinct from the TCR-delta repertoire in the peripheral blood. J Invest Dermatol 116:275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hori S, Nomura T, Sakaguchi S (2003) Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299:1057–1061CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Hoshino T, Yamada A, Honda J, Imai Y, Nakao M, Inoue M, Sagawa K, Yokoyama MM, Oizumi K, Itoh K (1993) Tissue-specific distribution and age-dependent increase of human CD11b+ T cells. J Immunol 151:2237–2246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Howie D, Spencer J, DeLord D, Pitzalis C, Wathen NC, Dogan A, Akbar A, MacDonald TT (1998) Extrathymic T cell differentiation in the human intestine early in life. J Immunol 161:5862–5872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Husband AJ, Gleeson M (1996) Ontogeny of mucosal immunity – environmental and behavioral influences. Brain Behav Immun 10:188–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ivanov S, Bozinovski S, Bossios A, Valadi H, Vlahos R, Malmhall C, Sjostrand M, Kolls JK, Anderson GP, Linden A (2007) Functional relevance of the IL-23-IL-17 axis in lungs in vivo. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 36:442–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jacobs RF, Wilson CB, Palmer S, Springmeyer SC, Henderson WR, Glover DM, Kessler DL Jr, Murphy JH, Hughes JP, van Belle G et al (1985) Factors related to the appearance of alveolar macrophages in the developing lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:548–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Jaffe R (1993) Review of human dendritic cells: isolation and culture from precursors. Pediatr Pathol 13:821–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Janossy G, Bofill M, Poulter LW, Rawlings E, Burford GD, Navarrete C, Ziegler A, Kelemen E (1986) Separate ontogeny of two macrophage-like accessory cell populations in the human fetus. J Immunol 136:4354–4361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Johnson CC, Ownby DR, Peterson EL (1996) Parental history of atopic disease and concentration of cord blood IgE. Clin Exp Allergy 26:624–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Johnston RB Jr (1988) Current concepts: immunology. Monocytes and macrophages. N Engl J Med 318:747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Jones DH, Schmalstieg FC, Dempsey K, Krater SS, Nannen DD, Smith CW, Anderson DC (1990) Subcellular distribution and mobilization of MAC-1 (CD11b/CD18) in neonatal neutrophils. Blood 75:488–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kagi D, Ledermann B, Burki K, Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H (1996) Molecular mechanisms of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and their role in immunological protection and pathogenesis in vivo. Annu Rev Immunol 14:207–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kagnoff MF (1998) Current concepts in mucosal immunity. III. Ontogeny and function of gamma delta T cells in the intestine. Am J Physiol 274:G455–G458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kang J, Raulet DH (1997) Events that regulate differentiation of alpha beta TCR+ and gamma delta TCR+ T cells from a common precursor. Semin Immunol 9:171–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kantor AB, Herzenberg LA (1993) Origin of murine B cell lineages. Annu Rev Immunol 11:501–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Karras JG, Wang Z, Huo L, Howard RG, Frank DA, Rothstein TL (1997) Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in normal, self-renewing B-1 cells but only inducibly expressed in conventional B lymphocytes. J Exp Med 185:1035–1042PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kelemen E, Janossa M (1980) Macrophages are the first differentiated blood cells formed in human embryonic liver. Exp Hematol 8:996–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kelsall B (2008) Recent progress in understanding the phenotype and function of intestinal dendritic cells and macrophages. Mucosal Immunol 1:460–469PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kelsoe G (1999) V(D)J hypermutation and receptor revision: coloring outside the lines. Curr Opin Immunol 11:70–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kesson AM, Bryson YJ (1991) Induction of interferon-gamma by cord blood mononuclear cells is calcium dependent. Cell Immunol 133:138–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kibler R, Hicks MJ, Wright AL, Taussig LM (1986) A comparative analysis of cord blood and adult lymphocytes: interleukin-2 and interferon production, natural killer cell activity, and lymphocyte populations. Diagn Immunol 4:201–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kim SK, Keeney SE, Alpard SK, Schmalstieg FC (2003) Comparison of L-selectin and CD11b on neutrophils of adults and neonates during the first month of life. Pediatr Res 53:132–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. King CL, Malhotra I, Mungai P, Wamachi A, Kioko J, Ouma JH, Kazura JW (1998) B cell sensitization to helminthic infection develops in utero in humans. J Immunol 160:3578–3584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Klebanoff SJ (2005) Myeloperoxidase: friend and foe. J Leukoc Biol 77:598–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Klein M (1983) Immunological markers of human mononuclear cells. Clin Biochem 16:128–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Klose CS, Flach M, Mohle L, Rogell L, Hoyler T, Ebert K, Fabiunke C, Pfeifer D, Sexl V, Fonseca-Pereira D, Domingues RG, Veiga-Fernandes H, Arnold SJ, Busslinger M, Dunay IR, Tanriver Y, Diefenbach A (2014) Differentiation of type 1 ILCs from a common progenitor to all helper-like innate lymphoid cell lineages. Cell 157:340–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kohler PF, Farr RS (1966) Elevation of cord over maternal IgG immunoglobulin: evidence for an active placental IgG transport. Nature 210:1070–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Komano H, Fujiura Y, Kawaguchi M, Matsumoto S, Hashimoto Y, Obana S, Mombaerts P, Tonegawa S, Yamamoto H, Itohara S et al (1995) Homeostatic regulation of intestinal epithelia by intraepithelial gamma delta T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:6147–6151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Komatsu H, Tsukimori K, Hata K, Satoh S, Nakano H (2001) The characterization of superoxide production of human neonatal neutrophil. Early Hum Dev 65:11–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Koningsberger JC, Chott A, Logtenberg T, Wiegman LJ, Blumberg RS, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Balk SP (1997) TCR expression in human fetal intestine and identification of an early T cell receptor beta-chain transcript. J Immunol 159:1775–1782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Krause PJ, Kreutzer DL, Eisenfeld L, Herson VC, Weisman S, Bannon P, Greca N (1989) Characterization of nonmotile neutrophil subpopulations in neonates and adults. Pediatr Res 25:519–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Kurland G, Cheung AT, Miller ME, Ayin SA, Cho MM, Ford EW (1988) The ontogeny of pulmonary defenses: alveolar macrophage function in neonatal and juvenile rhesus monkeys. Pediatr Res 23:293–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Latthe M, Terry L, MacDonald TT (1994) High frequency of CD8 alpha alpha homodimer-bearing T cells in human fetal intestine. Eur J Immunol 24:1703–1705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Laurenti F, Ferro R, Marzetti G, Rossini M, Bucci G (1980) Neutrophil chemotaxis in preterm infants with infections. J Pediatr 96:468–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lehrer RI (2007) Multispecific myeloid defensins. Curr Opin Hematol 14:16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Leibson PJ (1997) Signal transduction during natural killer cell activation: inside the mind of a killer. Immunity 6:655–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Leino A, Ruuskanen O, Kero P, Eskola J, Toivanen P (1981) Depressed phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A responses in premature infants. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 19:260–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Liechty KW, Koenig JM, Mitchell MD, Romero R, Christensen RD (1991) Production of interleukin-6 by fetal and maternal cells in vivo during intraamniotic infection and in vitro after stimulation with interleukin-1. Pediatr Res 29:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Liechty KW, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM (2000) Diminished interleukin 6 (IL-6) production during scarless human fetal wound repair. Cytokine 12:671–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lilic D, Cant AJ, Abinun M, Calvert JE, Spickett GP (1997) Cytokine production differs in children and adults. Pediatr Res 42:237–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Linch DC, Knott LJ, Rodeck CH, Huehns ER (1982) Studies of circulating hemopoietic progenitor cells in human fetal blood. Blood 59:976–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Linderkamp O, Ruef P, Brenner B, Gulbins E, Lang F (1998) Passive deformability of mature, immature, and active neutrophils in healthy and septicemic neonates. Pediatr Res 44:946–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Liu CC, Young LH, Young JD (1996) Lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis and disease. N Engl J Med 335:1651–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Lodinova R, Jouja V, Wagner V (1973) Serum immunoglobulins and coproantibody formation in infants after artificial intestinal colonization with Escherichia coli 083 and oral lysozyme administration. Pediatr Res 7:659–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Lubens RG, Gard SE, Soderberg-Warner M, Stiehm ER (1982) Lectin-dependent T-lymphocyte and natural killer cytotoxic deficiencies in human newborns. Cell Immunol 74:40–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lucivero G, Dell’Osso A, Iannone A, Selvaggi L, Antonaci S, Bettocchi S, Bonomo L (1983) Phenotypic immaturity of T and B lymphocytes in cord blood of full-term normal neonates. Analysis of cell surface markers by using conventional techniques and monoclonal antibodies. Biol Neonate 44:303–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Macardle PJ, Wheatland L, Zola H (1999) Analysis of the cord blood T lymphocyte response to superantigen. Hum Immunol 60:127–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. MacDonald TT (1996) Accessory cells in the human gastrointestinal tract. Histopathology 29:89–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. MacDonald TT, Spencer J (1990) Ontogeny of the mucosal immune response. Springer Semin Immunopathol 12:129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. MacDonald TT, Spencer J (1994) Ontogeny of the gut-associated lymphoid system in man. Acta Paediatr Suppl 83:3–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. MacDonald TT, Weinel A, Spencer J (1988) HLA-DR expression in human fetal intestinal epithelium. Gut 29:1342–1348PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Magri G, Miyajima M, Bascones S, Mortha A, Puga I, Cassis L, Barra CM, Comerma L, Chudnovskiy A, Gentile M, Llige D, Cols M, Serrano S, Arostegui JI, Juan M, Yague J, Merad M, Fagarasan S, Cerutti A (2014) Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells. Nat Immunol 15:354–364PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Maheshwari A, Christensen RD (2004) Developmental granulocytopoiesis. In: Polin RA, Fox WW, Abman SH (eds) Fetal and neonatal physiology, 3rd edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1388–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Maheshwari A, Zemlin M (2006) Ontogeny of the intestinal immune system. Haematol Rep 10:18–26Google Scholar
  184. Maheshwari A, Voitenok NN, Akalovich S, Shaik SS, Randolph DA, Sims B, Patel RP, Killingsworth CR, Fallon MB, Ohls RK (2009) Developmental changes in circulating IL-8/CXCL8 isoforms in neonates. Cytokine 46:12–16PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Maheshwari A, Kelly DR, Nicola T, Ambalavanan N, Jain SK, Murphy-Ullrich J, Athar M, Shimamura M, Bhandari V, Aprahamian C, Dimmitt RA, Serra R, Ohls RK (2011) TGF-β2 suppresses macrophage cytokine production and mucosal inflammatory responses in the developing intestine. Gastroenterology 140:242–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Maheshwari A, Kurundkar AR, Shaik SS, Kelly DR, Hartman Y, Zhang W, Dimmitt R, Saeed S, Randolph DA, Aprahamian C, Datta G, Ohls RK (2009) Epithelial cells in fetal intestine produce chemerin to recruit macrophages. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297:G1–G10PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Makori N, Tarantal AF, Lu FX, Rourke T, Marthas ML, McChesney MB, Hendrickx AG, Miller CJ (2003) Functional and morphological development of lymphoid tissues and immune regulatory and effector function in rhesus monkeys: cytokine-secreting cells, immunoglobulin-secreting cells, and CD5(+) B-1 cells appear early in fetal development. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:140–153PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Mathieson BJ, Fowlkes BJ (1984) Cell surface antigen expression on thymocytes: development and phenotypic differentiation of intrathymic subsets. Immunol Rev 82:141–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Mayer L (2005) Mucosal immunity. Immunol Rev 206:5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Weyrich AS, Zimmerman GA (2003) Cell-cell interactions: leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Curr Opin Hematol 10:150–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. McNabb T, Koh TY, Dorrington KJ, Painter RH (1976) Structure and function of immunoglobulin domains. V. Binding, University of immunoglobulin G and fragments to placental membrane preparations. J Immunol 117:882–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. McVay LD, Carding SR (1996) Extrathymic origin of human gamma delta T cells during fetal development. J Immunol 157:2873–2882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. McVay LD, Carding SR (1999) Generation of human gammadelta T-cell repertoires. Crit Rev Immunol 19:431–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Mellander L, Carlsson B, Hanson LA (1984) Appearance of secretory IgM and IgA antibodies to Escherichia coli in saliva during early infancy and childhood. J Pediatr 104:564–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Merrill JD, Sigaroudinia M, Kohl S (1996) Characterization of natural killer and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of preterm infants against human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. Pediatr Res 40:498–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Middendorp S, Nieuwenhuis EE (2009) NKT cells in mucosal immunity. Mucosal Immunol 2:393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Montecino-Rodriguez E, Dorshkind K (2006) New perspectives in B-1 B cell development and function. Trends Immunol 27:428–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Moraes TJ, Zurawska JH, Downey GP (2006) Neutrophil granule contents in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Curr Opin Hematol 13:21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Morita CT, Parker CM, Brenner MB, Band H (1994) TCR usage and functional capabilities of human gamma delta T cells at birth. J Immunol 153:3979–3988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Morris RB, Nichols BA, Bainton DF (1975) Ultrastructure and peroxidase cytochemistry of normal human leukocytes at birth. Dev Biol 44:223–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL (1986) Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol 136:2348–2357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Muller K, Zak M, Nielsen S, Pedersen FK, de Nully P, Bendtzen K (1996) In vitro cytokine production and phenotype expression by blood mononuclear cells from umbilical cords, children and adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 7:117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Neuberger MS, Di Noia JM, Beale RC, Williams GT, Yang Z, Rada C (2005) Somatic hypermutation at A.T pairs: polymerase error versus dUTP incorporation. Nat Rev Immunol 5:171–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Nonoyama S, Etzioni A, Toru H, Ruggerie DP, Lewis D, Pollack S, Aruffo A, Yata JI, Ochs HD (1998) Diminished expression of CD40 ligand may contribute to the defective humoral immunity in patients with MHC class II deficiency. Eur J Immunol 28:589–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Nossal GJ (1986) The Florey lecture, 1986. The regulatory biology of antibody formation. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 228:225–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Nupponen I, Turunen R, Nevalainen T, Peuravuori H, Pohjavuori M, Repo H, Andersson S (2002) Extracellular release of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in newborn infants. Pediatr Res 51:670–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. O’Doherty U, Peng M, Gezelter S, Swiggard WJ, Betjes M, Bhardwaj N, Steinman RM (1994) Human blood contains two subsets of dendritic cells, one immunologically mature and the other immature. Immunology 82:487–493PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Ofek I, Goldhar J, Keisari Y, Sharon N (1995) Nonopsonic phagocytosis of microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 49:239–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Ogra PL, Losonsky GA, Fishaut M (1983) Colostrum-derived immunity and maternal-neonatal interaction. Ann N Y Acad Sci 409:82–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Oltz EM (2001) Regulation of antigen receptor gene assembly in lymphocytes. Immunol Res 23:121–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Onyemelukwe GC, Leinoen M, Makela H, Greenwood BM (1985) Response to pneumococcal vaccination in normal and post-infected Nigerians. J Infect 11:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Ortaldo JR, Winkler-Pickett RT, Nagashima K, Yagita H, Okumura K (1992) Direct evidence for release of pore-forming protein during NK cellular lysis. J Leukoc Biol 52:483–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Palfi M, Hilden JO, Gottvall T, Selbing A (1998) Placental transport of maternal immunoglobulin G in pregnancies at risk of Rh (D) hemolytic disease of the newborn. Am J Reprod Immunol 39:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Paloczi K (1999) Immunophenotypic and functional characterization of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Leukemia 13(Suppl 1):S87–S89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Panaro A, Amati A, di Loreto M, Felle R, Ferrante M, Papadia AM, Porfido N, Gambatesa V, Dell’Osso A, Lucivero G (1991) Lymphocyte subpopulations in pediatric age. Definition of reference values by flow cytometry. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 19:109–112Google Scholar
  216. Panes J, Granger DN (1994) Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. Dig Dis 12:232–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Payne NR, Fleit HB (1996) Extremely low birth weight infants have lower Fc gamma RIII (CD 16) plasma levels and their PMN produce less Fc gamma RIII compared to adults. Biol Neonate 69:235–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Payne NR, Frestedt J, Hunkeler N, Gehrz R (1993) Cell-surface expression of immunoglobulin G receptors on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes of extremely premature infants. Pediatr Res 33:452–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Peakman M, Buggins AG, Nicolaides KH, Layton DM, Vergani D (1992) Analysis of lymphocyte phenotypes in cord blood from early gestation fetuses. Clin Exp Immunol 90:345–350PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Petty RE, Hunt DW (1998) Neonatal dendritic cells. Vaccine 16:1378–1382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Phillips JH, Hori T, Nagler A, Bhat N, Spits H, Lanier LL (1992) Ontogeny of human natural killer (NK) cells: fetal NK cells mediate cytolytic function and express cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon,delta proteins. J Exp Med 175:1055–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Piccinni MP, Beloni L, Giannarini L, Livi C, Scarselli G, Romagnani S, Maggi E (1996) Abnormal production of T helper 2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 by T cells from newborns with atopic parents. Eur J Immunol 26:2293–2298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Pirenne H, Aujard Y, Eljaafari A, Bourillon A, Oury JF, Le Gac S, Blot P, Sterkers G (1992) Comparison of T cell functional changes during childhood with the ontogeny of CDw29 and CD45RA expression on CD4+ T cells. Pediatr Res 32:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Pirenne-Ansart H, Paillard F, De Groote D, Eljaafari A, Le Gac S, Blot P, Franchimont P, Vaquero C, Sterkers G (1995) Defective cytokine expression but adult-type T-cell receptor, CD8, and p56lck modulation in CD3- or CD2-activated T cells from neonates. Pediatr Res 37:64–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Porcellini A, Manna A, Manna M, Talevi N, Delfini C, Moretti L, Rizzoli V (1983) Ontogeny of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in the human fetus. Int J Cell Cloning 1:92–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Puel A, Ziegler SF, Buckley RH, Leonard WJ (1998) Defective IL7R expression in T(−)B(+)NK(+) severe combined immunodeficiency. Nat Genet 20:394–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Qian JX, Lee SM, Suen Y, Knoppel E, van de Ven C, Cairo MS (1997) Decreased interleukin-15 from activated cord versus adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the effect of interleukin-15 in upregulating antitumor immune activity and cytokine production in cord blood. Blood 90:3106–3117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Quinn MT, Gauss KA (2004) Structure and regulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase: comparison with nonphagocyte oxidases. J Leukoc Biol 76:760–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Reddy RK, Xia Y, Hanikyrova M, Ross GD (1998) A mixed population of immature and mature leucocytes in umbilical cord blood results in a reduced expression and function of CR3 (CD11b/CD18). Clin Exp Immunol 114:462–467PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Reen DJ, Early E (1998) Cord blood ‘naive’ T cells demonstrate distinct immunological properties compared with their adult counterparts. Bone Marrow Transplant 22(Suppl 1):S35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Ridings J, Nicholson IC, Goldsworthy W, Haslam R, Roberton DM, Zola H (1997) Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes in human neonates. Clin Exp Immunol 108:366–374PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Risdon G, Gaddy J, Stehman FB, Broxmeyer HE (1994) Proliferative and cytotoxic responses of human cord blood T lymphocytes following allogeneic stimulation. Cell Immunol 154:14–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Rognum TO, Thrane S, Stoltenberg L, Vege A, Brandtzaeg P (1992) Development of intestinal mucosal immunity in fetal life and the first postnatal months. Pediatr Res 32:145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Roncarolo MG, Bigler M, Ciuti E, Martino S, Tovo PA (1994) Immune responses by cord blood cells. Blood Cells 20:573–585; discussion 85-6Google Scholar
  235. Rosen SD (2004) Ligands for L-selectin: homing, inflammation, and beyond. Annu Rev Immunol 22:129–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Rudin CM, Thompson CB (1998) B-cell development and maturation. Semin Oncol 25:435–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Ruoslahti E (1988) Fibronectin and its receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 57:375–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Sacchi F, Rondini G, Mingrat G, Stronati M, Gancia GP, Marseglia GL, Siccardi AG (1982) Different maturation of neutrophil chemotaxis in term and preterm newborn infants. J Pediatr 101:273–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Sanjeevi CB, Vivekanandan S, Narayanan PR (1991) Fetal response to maternal ascariasis as evidenced by anti Ascaris lumbricoides IgM antibodies in the cord blood. Acta Paediatr Scand 80:1134–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Santiago-Schwarz F, Fleit HB (1988) Identification of nonadherent mononuclear cells in human cord blood that differentiate into macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 43:51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Sato T, Laver JH, Aiba Y, Ogawa M (1999) NK cell colony formation from human fetal thymocytes. Exp Hematol 27:726–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Sautois B, Fillet G, Beguin Y (1997) Comparative cytokine production by in vitro stimulated mononucleated cells from cord blood and adult blood. Exp Hematol 25:103–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Schaub B, Liu J, Schleich I, Hoppler S, Sattler C, von Mutius E (2008) Impairment of T helper and T regulatory cell responses at birth. Allergy 63:1438–1447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Schelonka RL, Raaphorst FM, Infante D, Kraig E, Teale JM, Infante AJ (1998) T cell receptor repertoire diversity and clonal expansion in human neonates. Pediatr Res 43:396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Schibler KR, Liechty KW, White WL, Rothstein G, Christensen RD (1992) Defective production of interleukin-6 by monocytes: a possible mechanism underlying several host defense deficiencies of neonates. Pediatr Res 31:18–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Schibler KR, Trautman MS, Liechty KW, White WL, Rothstein G, Christensen RD (1993) Diminished transcription of interleukin-8 by monocytes from preterm neonates. J Leukoc Biol 53:399–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Schroeder HW Jr, Hillson JL, Perlmutter RM (1987) Early restriction of the human antibody repertoire. Science 238:791–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Segal AW (2005) How neutrophils kill microbes. Annu Rev Immunol:197–223PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Seghaye MC, Heyl W, Grabitz RG, Schumacher K, von Bernuth G, Rath W, Duchateau J (1998) The production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in neonates assessed by stimulated whole cord blood culture and by plasma levels at birth. Biol Neonate 73:220–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Series IM, Pichette J, Carrier C, Masson M, Bedard PM, Beaudoin J, Hebert J (1991) Quantitative analysis of T and B cell subsets in healthy and sick premature infants. Early Hum Dev 26:143–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Shaik SS, Soltau TD, Chaturvedi G, Totapally B, Hagood JS, Andrews WW, Athar M, Voitenok NN, Killingsworth CR, Patel RP, Fallon MB, Maheshwari A (2009) Low intensity shear stress increases endothelial ELR+ CXC chemokine production via a focal adhesion kinase-p38{beta} MAPK-NF-{kappa}B pathway. J Biol Chem 284:5945–5955PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Shepard JL, Zon LI (2000) Developmental derivation of embryonic and adult macrophages. Curr Opin Hematol 7:3–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Shroff KE, Meslin K, Cebra JJ (1995) Commensal enteric bacteria engender a self-limiting humoral mucosal immune response while permanently colonizing the gut. Infect Immun 63:3904–3913PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  254. Siegel I, Gleicher N (1981) Development of the fetal immune system. Prog Clin Biol Res 70:31–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Sloan-Lancaster J, Allen PM (1996) Altered peptide ligand-induced partial T cell activation: molecular mechanisms and role in T cell biology. Annu Rev Immunol 14:1–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Smith PD, Smythies LE, Mosteller-Barnum M, Sibley DA, Russell MW, Merger M, Sellers MT, Orenstein JM, Shimada T, Graham MF, Kubagawa H (2001) Intestinal macrophages lack CD14 and CD89 and consequently are down-regulated for LPS- and IgA-mediated activities. J Immunol 167:2651–2656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Smyth MJ, Kelly JM, Sutton VR, Davis JE, Browne KA, Sayers TJ, Trapani JA (2001) Unlocking the secrets of cytotoxic granule proteins. J Leukoc Biol 70:18–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Smythies LE, Sellers M, Clements RH, Mosteller-Barnum M, Meng G, Benjamin WH, Orenstein JM, Smith PD (2005) Human intestinal macrophages display profound inflammatory anergy despite avid phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity. J Clin Invest 115:66–75PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Smythies LE, Maheshwari A, Clements R, Eckhoff D, Novak L, Vu HL, Mosteller-Barnum LM, Sellers M, Smith PD (2006a) Mucosal IL-8 and TGF-{beta} recruit blood monocytes: evidence for cross-talk between the lamina propria stroma and myeloid cells. J Leukoc Biol 80:492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Smythies LE, Maheshwari A, Clements R, Eckhoff D, Novak L, Vu HL, Mosteller-Barnum LM, Sellers M, Smith PD (2006b) Mucosal IL-8 and TGF-beta recruit blood monocytes: evidence for cross-talk between the lamina propria stroma and myeloid cells. J Leukoc Biol 80:492–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Sonnenberg GF, Fouser LA, Artis D (2011) Border patrol: regulation of immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis at barrier surfaces by IL-22. Nat Immunol 12:383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Speer CP, Ambruso DR, Grimsley J, Johnston RB Jr (1985) Oxidative metabolism in cord blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Infect Immun 50:919–921PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Speer CP, Wieland M, Ulbrich R, Gahr M (1986) Phagocytic activities in neonatal monocytes. Eur J Pediatr 145:418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Spencer J, Finn T, Isaacson PG (1985) Gut associated lymphoid tissue: a morphological and immunocytochemical study of the human appendix. Gut 26:672–679PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Spencer J, MacDonald TT, Finn T, Isaacson PG (1986) The development of gut associated lymphoid tissue in the terminal ileum of fetal human intestine. Clin Exp Immunol 64:536–543PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. Spencer J, MacDonald TT, Isaacson PG (1987) Heterogeneity of non-lymphoid cells expressing HLA-D region antigens in human fetal gut. Clin Exp Immunol 67:415–424PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  267. Spencer J, Isaacson PG, Walker-Smith JA, MacDonald TT (1989) Heterogeneity in intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulations in fetal and postnatal human small intestine. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9:173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Spits H, Lanier LL, Phillips JH (1995) Development of human T and natural killer cells. Blood 85:2654–2670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Spits H, Blom B, Jaleco AC, Weijer K, Verschuren MC, van Dongen JJ, Heemskerk MH, Res PC (1998) Early stages in the development of human T, natural killer and thymic dendritic cells. Immunol Rev 165:75–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Splawski JB, Jelinek DF, Lipsky PE (1991) Delineation of the functional capacity of human neonatal lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 87:545–553PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Splawski JB, Nishioka J, Nishioka Y, Lipsky PE (1996) CD40 ligand is expressed and functional on activated neonatal T cells. J Immunol 156:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Starnes LM, Sorrentino A, Pelosi E, Ballarino M, Morsilli O, Biffoni M, Santoro S, Felli N, Castelli G, De Marchis ML, Mastroberardino G, Gabbianelli M, Fatica A, Bozzoni I, Nervi C, Peschle C (2009) NFI-A directs the fate of hematopoietic progenitors to the erythroid or granulocytic lineage and controls {beta}-globin and G-CSF receptor expression. Blood 114:1753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Steele CR, Oppenheim DE, Hayday AC (2000) Gamma(delta) T cells: non-classical ligands for non-classical cells. Curr Biol 10:R282–R285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Stiehm ER, Mann D, Newland C, Sztein MB, Steeg PS, Oppenheim JJ, Blaese RM (1983) Deficient DR antigen expression on human neonatal monocytes: reversal with lymphokines. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 19:295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Stiehm ER, Sztein MB, Steeg PS, Mann D, Newland C, Blaese M, Oppenheim JJ (1984) Deficient DR antigen expression on human cord blood monocytes: reversal with lymphokines. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 30:430–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Stites DP, Pavia CS (1979) Ontogeny of human T cells. Pediatrics 64:795–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Strominger JL (1989) Developmental biology of T cell receptors. Science 244:943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Strunk T, Temming P, Gembruch U, Reiss I, Bucsky P, Schultz C (2004) Differential maturation of the innate immune response in human fetuses. Pediatr Res 56:219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Sullivan SE, Staba SL, Gersting JA, Hutson AD, Theriaque D, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (2002) Circulating concentrations of chemokines in cord blood, neonates, and adults. Pediatr Res 51:653–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Takahashi N, Imanishi K, Nishida H, Uchiyama T (1995) Evidence for immunologic immaturity of cord blood T cells. Cord blood T cells are susceptible to tolerance induction to in vitro stimulation with a superantigen. J Immunol 155:5213–5219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Takahashi T, Yoshida Y, Hatano S, Sugita-Konishi Y, Igimi S, Yajima M, Kojima T, Kanno T, Yonekubo A, Yajima T, Kuwata T (2002) Reactivity of secretory IgA antibodies in breast milk from 107 Japanese mothers to 20 environmental antigens. Biol Neonate 82:238–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Takashina T (1987) Haemopoiesis in the human yolk sac. J Anat 151:125–135PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  283. Teyton L, Apostolopoulos V, Cantu C 3rd, Celia H, Mallet-Designe V, Stefanko R, Stramann T, Wallace M (2000) Function and dysfunction of T cell receptor: structural studies. Immunol Res 21:325–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Thilaganathan B, Mansur CA, Morgan G, Nicolaides KH (1992) Fetal T-lymphocyte subpopulations in normal pregnancies. Fetal Diagn Ther 7:53–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Thomas RM, Linch DC (1983) Identification of lymphocyte subsets in the newborn using a variety of monoclonal antibodies. Arch Dis Child 58:34–38PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Toivanen P, Uksila J, Leino A, Lassila O, Hirvonen T, Ruuskanen O (1981) Development of mitogen responding T cells and natural killer cells in the human fetus. Immunol Rev 57:89–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Toubert A, Douay C, Chalumeau N, Garderet L, Dulphy N, Zilber MT, Gelin C, Mooney N, Charron D (1998) Effects of superantigenic stimulation on the cord blood alphabeta T cell repertoire. Bone Marrow Transplant 22(Suppl 1):S36–S38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Trinchieri G (1989) Biology of natural killer cells. Adv Immunol 47:187–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Trinchieri G, Valiante N (1993) Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG on natural killer cells. Nat Immun 12:218–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Turkmen M, Satar M, Atici A (2000) Neutrophil chemotaxis and random migration in preterm and term infants with sepsis. Am J Perinatol 17:107–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Ugazio AG, Marcioni AF, Astaldi A Jr, Burgio GR (1974) Peripheral blood B lymphocytes in infancy and childhood. Acta Paediatr Scand 63:205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. van Elburg RM, Fetter WP, Bunkers CM, Heymans HS (2003) Intestinal permeability in relation to birth weight and gestational and postnatal age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 88:F52–F55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Velilla PA, Rugeles MT, Chougnet CA (2006) Defective antigen-presenting cell function in human neonates. Clin Immunol 121:251–259PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Viret C, Janeway CA Jr (1999) MHC and T cell development. Rev Immunogenet 1:91–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Volpe R (1996) Graves’ disease/model of SCID mouse. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 104(Suppl 3):37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Wagner JG, Roth RA (2000) Neutrophil migration mechanisms, with an emphasis on the pulmonary vasculature. Pharmacol Rev 52:349–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Wan AK, Seow WK, Purdie DM, Bird PS, Walsh LJ, Tudehope DI (2003) Immunoglobulins in saliva of preterm and full-term infants. Oral Microbiol Immunol 18:72–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Weatherstone KB, Rich EA (1989) Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin and interleukin-1 secretion by cord blood monocytes from premature and term neonates. Pediatr Res 25:342–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Weaver CT, Harrington LE, Mangan PR, Gavrieli M, Murphy KM (2006) Th17: an effector CD4 T cell lineage with regulatory T cell ties. Immunity 24:677–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Weemaes C, Klasen I, Goertz J, Beldhuis-Valkis M, Olafsson O, Haraldsson A (2003) Development of immunoglobulin A in infancy and childhood. Scand J Immunol 58:642–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Weil GJ, Hussain R, Kumaraswami V, Tripathy SP, Phillips KS, Ottesen EA (1983) Prenatal allergic sensitization to helminth antigens in offspring of parasite-infected mothers. J Clin Invest 71:1124–1129PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Weinberg AG, Rosenfeld CR, Manroe BL, Browne R (1985) Neonatal blood cell count in health and disease. II. Values for lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. J Pediatr 106:462–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Weinberger B, Laskin DL, Mariano TM, Sunil VR, DeCoste CJ, Heck DE, Gardner CR, Laskin JD (2001) Mechanisms underlying reduced responsiveness of neonatal neutrophils to distinct chemoattractants. J Leukoc Biol 70:969–976PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  304. Weston WL, Carson BS, Barkin RM, Slater GD, Dustin RD, Hecht SK (1977) Monocyte-macrophage function in the newborn. Am J Dis Child 131:1241–1242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Wilders MM, Sminia T, Janse EM (1983) Ontogeny of non-lymphoid and lymphoid cells in the rat gut with special reference to large mononuclear Ia-positive dendritic cells. Immunology 50:303–314PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  306. Williams TJ, Jones CA, Miles EA, Warner JO, Warner JA (2000) Fetal and neonatal IL-13 production during pregnancy and at birth and subsequent development of atopic symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:951–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Williams AM, Bland PW, Phillips AC, Turner S, Brooklyn T, Shaya G, Spicer RD, Probert CS (2004) Intestinal alpha beta T cells differentiate and rearrange antigen receptor genes in situ in the human infant. J Immunol 173:7190–7199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Williams DA, Xu H, Cancelas JA (2006) Children are not little adults: just ask their hematopoietic stem cells. J Clin Invest 116:2593–2596PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Wilson CB (1986) Immunologic basis for increased susceptibility of the neonate to infection. J Pediatr 108:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Wilson CB (1991) The ontogeny of T lymphocyte maturation and function. J Pediatr 118:S4–S9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Wilson M, Rosen FS, Schlossman SF, Reinherz EL (1985) Ontogeny of human T and B lymphocytes during stressed and normal gestation: phenotypic analysis of umbilical cord lymphocytes from term and preterm infants. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 37:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Wilson CB, Lewis DB, English BK (1991) T cell development in the fetus and neonate. Adv Exp Med Biol 310:17–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Wilson CB, Penix L, Weaver WM, Melvin A, Lewis DB (1992) Ontogeny of T lymphocyte function in the neonate. Am J Reprod Immunol 28:132–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Wilson NJ, Boniface K, Chan JR, McKenzie BS, Blumenschein WM, Mattson JD, Basham B, Smith K, Chen T, Morel F, Lecron JC, Kastelein RA, Cua DJ, McClanahan TK, Bowman EP, de Waal Malefyt R (2007) Development, cytokine profile and function of human interleukin 17-producing helper T cells. Nat Immunol 8:950–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Xanthou M (1970) Leucocyte blood picture in healthy full-term and premature babies during neonatal period. Arch Dis Child 45:242–249PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Yachie A, Takano N, Yokoi T, Kato K, Kasahara Y, Miyawaki T, Taniguchi N (1990) The capability of neonatal leukocytes to produce IL-6 on stimulation assessed by whole blood culture. Pediatr Res 27:227–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Yeung CY, Hobbs JR (1968) Serum-gamma-G-globulin levels in normal premature, post-mature, and “small-for-dates” newborn babies. Lancet 1:1167–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Yoder MC, Lanker TA, Engle WA (1988) Culture medium oxygen tension affects fibronectin production in human adult and cord blood macrophages. Immunol Lett 19:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Zemlin M, Bauer K, Hummel M, Pfeiffer S, Devers S, Zemlin C, Stein H, Versmold HT (2001) The diversity of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in peripheral blood B cells of preterm infants is restricted by short third complementarity-determining regions but not by limited gene segment usage. Blood 97:1511–1513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NeonatologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Newborn MedicineMaria Fareri Children’s Hospital, Westchester Medical Center – New York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

Personalised recommendations