Neonatology pp 971-993 | Cite as

Continuous Positive Airways Pressure and Other Noninvasive Respiratory Techniques in Newborns

  • Fabrizio SandriEmail author
  • Gina Ancora
  • Gianluca Lista
  • Luc J. I. Zimmermann
Reference work entry


Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) is a method of assisted respiration that consists of the application of continuous positive pressure to a spontaneously breathing patient’s airways throughout the entire respiratory cycle. The first use of a CPAP was in the 1930s (Poulton EP, Oxon DM, Lancet 228:981–983, 1936; Bullowa JGH, The management of the Pneumonias. Oxford University Press, New York, 1937; Barach AL, Martin J, Eckman M, Proc Am Soc Clin Invest 16:664–680, 1937), but its first notable application in the neonatal field was in 1971 when CPAP was used in the treatment of RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) in spontaneously breathing newborns undergoing tracheal intubation (Gregory GA, Kittermann JA, Phibbs RH et al. N Engl J Med 284:1333–1340, 1971). Nowadays, nasal CPAP (N-CPAP) is considered a valid approach in the management of respiratory failure of the preterm infant from birth reducing occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and death, without increasing risk of neurological damage.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrizio Sandri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gina Ancora
    • 2
  • Gianluca Lista
    • 3
  • Luc J. I. Zimmermann
    • 4
  1. 1.Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care UnitOspedale MaggioreBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care UnitOspedale InfermiRiminiItaly
  3. 3.Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care UnitOspedale dei Bambini V. BuzziMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of Pediatrics and NeonatologySchool for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical CenterMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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