Pulmonary Air Leakage in Newborns
In neonates, the most common air leaks include pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax, while pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum, and venous pulmonary embolism are less frequent. Air leaks are more common and severe among neonates with lung disease characterized by either poor lung compliance needing high ventilatory pressures or lung overdistention. Many affected neonates have minimal or no symptoms, while others present with signs of respiratory distress and increased oxygen requirement. Sudden collapse may occur in case of hypertensive pneumothorax or pneumopericardium. The diagnosis is suspected clinically and confirmed by chest X-ray. Treatment varies by type of air leak and severity of clinical condition.
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